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<C>
Cell
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★ Cell

66,460.  A cell has a history; its structure is inherited, it grows, divides, and, as in the embryo of higher animals, the products of division differentiate on complex lines.  Living cells, moreover, transmit all that is involved in their complex heredity.  I am far from maintaining that these fundamental properties may not depend upon organisation at levels above any chemical level; to understand them may even call for different methods of thought; I do not pretend to know.  But if there be a hierarchy of levels we must recognise each one, and the physical and chemical level which, I would again say, may be the level of self-maintenance, must always have a place in any ultimate complete description.  Frederick Gowland Hopkins

 

 

66,461.  A cell of a higher organism contains a thousand different substances, arranged in a complex system.  This great organized system was not discovered by chemical or physical methods; they are inadequate to its refinement and delicacy and complexity.  (Cell & System)  Herbert Spencer Jennings

 

 

66,462.  Every complete set of chromosomes contains the full code; so there are, as a rule, two copies of the latter in the fertilized egg cell, which forms the earliest stage of the future individual.  In calling the structure of the chromosome fibres a code-script we mean that the all-penetrating mind, once conceived by Laplace, to which every causal connection lay immediately open, could tell from their structure whether the egg would develop, under suitable conditions, into a black cock or into a speckled hen, into a fly or a maize plant, a rhododendron, a beetle, a mouse or a woman.  To which we may add, that the appearances of the egg cells are very often remarkably similar; and even when they are not, as in the case of the comparatively gigantic eggs of birds and reptiles, the difference is not so much in the relevant structures as in the nutritive material which in these cases is added for obvious reasons.

 

But the term code-script is, of course, too narrow.  The chromosome structures are at the same time instrumental in bringing about the development they foreshadow.  They are law-code and executive power, or to use another simile, they are architects plan and builder’s craft-in one.  (Cell & Life & DNA)  Erwin Schrödinger, What is Life?

 

 

66,463.  Surely the mitochondrion that first entered another cell was not thinking about the future benefits of cooperation and integration; it was merely trying to make its own living in a tough Darwinian world.  Stephen Jay Gould

 

 

66,464.  There are living systems; there is no living matter.  No substance, no single molecule, extracted and isolated from a living being possess, of its own, the aforementioned paradoxical properties.  They are present in living systems only; that is to say, nowhere below the level of the cell.  (Cell & Life & Matter)  Jacques Monod

 

 

66,465.  We may regard the cell quite apart from its familiar morphological aspects, and contemplate its constitution from the purely chemical standpoint.  We are obliged to adopt the view, that the protoplasm is equipped with certain atomic groups, whose function especially consists in fixing to themselves food-stuffs, of importance to the cell-life.  Adopting the nomenclature of organic chemistry, these groups may be designated side-chains.  We may assume that the protoplasm consists of a special executive centre (Leistungs-centrum) in connection with which are nutritive side-chains ... The relationship of the corresponding groups i.e. those of the food-stuff, and those of the cell, must be specific.  They must be adapted to one another as e.g. male and female screw (Pasteur), or as lock and key (E Fischer).  Paul Ehrlich

 

 

74,497.  Our planet is bursting with life ... Every single thing that has ever existed on earth has one thing in common: and it’s this:  DNA ... This stuff is the most ingenious code in the universe ... And what an amazing story we’ve uncovered.  (Genes & DNA & Life & Cells)  Dr Adam Rutherford, The Gene Code: The Book of Life, BBC

 

74,498.  Complex cells like the ones we’re made of suddenly appeared.  (Genes & DNA & Life & Cells)  ibid.

 

74,499.  For the first billion years or so life on Earth consisted entirely of simple single cells like bacteria and archaea.  Then about two billion years ago more complex cells appeared.  (Genes & DNA & Life & Cells & Bacteria)  ibid.

 

74,500.  Mitochondria:  the host now had the power to become bigger.  (Genes & DNA & Life & Cells)  ibid.

 

74,501.  We can see about two hundred genes scattered around my chromosomes that ... originally came from archaea ... We found short stretches of DNA that are uncannily similar to bacteria.  (Genes & DNA & Life & Cells & Bacteria)  ibid.

 

74,502.  Back to our wormy friends:  in June 2008 the entire Amphioxus genome sequence was finished; it revealed that our genome is essentially a Amphioxus genome quadrupled.  (Genes & DNA & Life & Cells)  ibid.

 

74,503.  The genes that build these bones are essentially the same in all species.  (Genes & DNA & Life & Cells & Bones)  ibid.

 

 

83,956.  The theory says that every time cells divide the tips of our chromosomes – called telomeres – become shorter.  Eventually they become so short they stop our cells dividing.  (Old Age & Cells)  Horizon: Don’t Grow Old 2010

 

 

89,576.  There’s something very different about this rain – its colour ... Rain the colour of blood.  (Sri Lanka & Rain & Cells)  Unexplained Files, Discovery 2013

 

89,577.  Could the red rain plague in Colombia, India and Sri Lanka actually contain blood?  And if so, where would it come from?  (Sri Lanka & Rain & Cells)  ibid.

 

89,578.  These cells are replicating even though they have no DNA.  (Sri Lanka & Rain & Cells)  ibid.

 

 

92,832.  It targets white blood cells ... The RNA takes over and it hijacks the cell's ability to duplicate.  (Virus & Cells & Ebola)  Ebola Exposed, Discovery 2015

 

 

92,841.  They have to replicate inside a cell.  They can’t just grow if you give them growth medium like a bacterium could for instance.  They have to find a particular cell they can enter and replicate in.  (Virus & Cell)  Professor Geoffrey Smith, Imperial College London

 

 

103,772.  Masked cell activation syndrome: Bryn’s masked cells were producing too much histamine and causing inflammation when it wasn’t needed.  (Body & Cell)  Incredible Medicine: Dr Weston’s Casebook IV, BBC 2017

 

 

104,079.  ‘I have a sickle-cell disease but I’m not sick.’ … High levels of … a special type of haemoglobin.  (Body & Cell)  Incredible Medicine: Dr Weston’s Casebook V  

 

104,082.  Henrietta’s cells were different … [after death] they did not continue to die off … Each cell dividing every twenty hours … Human cells that appeared to be immortal.  (Body & Cell)  ibid.

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