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★ Catalonia

Catalonia: see Spain & Anarchism & Civil War Spain & Europe & European Union

Living Utopia: The Anarchists and the Spanish Revolution 1997 - An Anarchist’s Story: Ethel McDonald 2006 - Spanish Civil War with Michael Portillo TV - The Spanish Civil War TV - George Orwell - Two Catalonias 2018 - The Truth About Franco: Spain’s Forgotten Dictator TV -

 

 

109,612.  ‘Anarchism is freedom.’  (Anarchy & Utopia & Spain & Spanish Civil War & Catalonia)  Living Utopia: The Anarchists and the Spanish Revolution 1997, Miguel Alba

 

109,613.  ‘I woke up to the sound of the factory sirens.  And it was as if all of Barcelona were beating with a single heart.  It was something you experience maybe once in 100 years.  And one thing I can say is that it marked my life.  That emotion is always with me.’  (Anarchy & Utopia & Spain & Spanish Civil War & Catalonia)  ibid.  Federico Arcos

 

109,614.  ‘The real revolution started on July 19th.  The people started it spontaneously defending themselves against the army.  It was the one and only time that the people defeated the army.’  (Anarchy & Utopia & Spain & Spanish Civil War & Catalonia)  ibid.  Francisco Carrasquer  

 

109,615.  ‘The people discovered they were the masters of their own fate.’  (Anarchy & Utopia & Spain & Spanish Civil War & Catalonia)  ibid.  Federico Arcos  

 

109,616.  The misery in which so many Spaniards lived in 1930 had barely improved since the start of the industrial revolution the century before.  Illiteracy and great social inequality continued while the authorities, the Church and the bourgeoisie did nothing.  Anarchism, which seemed like a Utopian socialist proposal to fight against social injustice had been gradually establishing itself among the country’s poorest classes.  (Anarchy & Utopia & Spain & Spanish Civil War & Catalonia)  ibid.  

 

109,617.  For anarchists it is the people who have to acquire a revolutionary awareness and get to know reality so as to change it.  (Anarchy & Utopia & Spain & Spanish Civil War & Catalonia)  ibid.

 

109,618.  In 1923 with the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera the CNT was outlawed and many anarchists went into exile.  (Anarchy & Utopia & Spain & Spanish Civil War & Catalonia)  ibid.

 

109,619.  ‘The unions were being constantly closed down; the jails were full of workers.’  (Anarchy & Utopia & Spain & Spanish Civil War & Catalonia)  ibid.  witness

 

109,620.  It was the citizens who organised the new society.  (Anarchy & Utopia & Spain & Spanish Civil War & Catalonia)  ibid.

 

109,621.  The people put into practice all the libertarian ideas cherished over a century … Barcelona became the advanced guard of the revolution.  (Anarchy & Utopia & Spain & Spanish Civil War & Catalonia)  ibid.

 

109,622.  ‘Money was abolished.  All landowners would have their property expropriated whether they were to the left or to the right.  All machinery would be at the people’s disposal.  All buildings would be used for lodging inhabitants no matter who the owner was.  Work was done collectively.’  (Anarchy & Utopia & Spain & Spanish Civil War & Catalonia)  ibid.  witness  

 

109,623.  ‘Everyone adapted very well.’  (Anarchy & Utopia & Spain & Spanish Civil War & Catalonia)  ibid.

 

109,624.  The social revolution in rural Spain had the support of most of the peasants.  3 million Spaniards were living under the principles of libertarian communism.  (Anarchy & Utopia & Spain & Spanish Civil War & Catalonia)  ibid.

 

109,625.  The structure was complicated but everyone was involved.  (Anarchy & Utopia & Spain & Spanish Civil War & Catalonia)  ibid.

 

109,626.  ‘Anarchism is the greatest thing.’  (Anarchy & Utopia & Spain & Spanish Civil War & Catalonia)  ibid.  witness

 

109,627.  ‘Lister did that because just as in Russia the Bolsheviks, the dictators, wouldn’t allow the existence of a libertarian movement.’  (Anarchy & Utopia & Spain & Spanish Civil War & Catalonia)  ibid.

 

109,628.  ‘We’d lost our ideals and we knew that it was for ever.  The struggle was lost.  The retreat began.’  (Anarchy & Utopia & Spain & Spanish Civil War & Catalonia)  ibid.  

 

109,629.  ‘They arrested all of us.’  (Anarchy & Utopia & Spain & Spanish Civil War & Catalonia)  ibid.

 

 

121,132.  Franco’s armies marched into the Republican heartland of neighbouring Catalonia.  (Spain & Spanish Civil War & Catalonia)  ibid.  

 

121,133.  Their defeated opponents were put to death.  (Spain & Spanish Civil War & Catalonia)  ibid.

 

 

109,722.  For a few brief months in Catalonia 1936 history’s only anarchist experiment flourished.  And it was a women from the far side of Europe who reported its rise and its final defeat to the world.  (Anarchy & Biography & Spain & Spanish Civil War & Catalonia)  An Anarchist’s Story: Ethel McDonald, 2006

 

109,723.  ‘Spain is the place where the future of the world is being determined.  It’s not just another local difficulty.’  (Anarchy & Biography & Spain & Spanish Civil War & Catalonia)  ibid.  Professor Mike Gonzalez

 

109,724.  Radical thinkers like Ethel McDonald, now 27 years old and with 8 year’ anarchist activism behind her, quickly picked up on the importance of what was happening in Spain.  (Anarchy & Biography & Spain & Spanish Civil War & Catalonia)  ibid.  

 

109,725.  Spain was the arena for a showdown between Left and Right.  (Anarchy & Biography & Spain & Spanish Civil War & Catalonia)  ibid.

 

109,726.  ‘We supported the concept of loyalty, honesty: those are the basic values of anarchy.’  (Anarchy & Biography & Spain & Spanish Civil War & Catalonia)  ibid.  witness

 

109,728.  For ten extraordinary months in 36 and 37 the region of Catalonia became the centre of one of the most radical revolutions in world history.  (Anarchy & Biography & Spain & Spanish Civil War & Catalonia)  ibid.

 

109,729.  ‘This is the kind of international that will united the human race.’  (Anarchy & Biography & Spain & Spanish Civil War & Catalonia)  ibid.  Ethel

 

109,730.  While Ethel hid out in Catalonia trying to find a way home she was becoming famous in her native land.  (Anarchy & Biography & Spain & Spanish Civil War & Catalonia)  ibid.    

 

109,731.  The fate of volunteers trapped in Spain attracted international criticism.  (Anarchy & Biography & Spain & Spanish Civil War & Catalonia)  ibid.

 

109,732.  ‘I helped anarchist comrades in and out of prison.’  (Anarchy & Biography & Spain & Spanish Civil War & Catalonia)  ibid.  Ethel  

 

 

121,132.  Franco’s armies marched into the Republican heartland of neighbouring Catalonia.  (Spain & Spanish Civil War & Catalonia)  Spanish Civil War with Michael Portillo s1e2: War Without Mercy  

 

121,133.  Their defeated opponents were put to death.  (Spain & Spanish Civil War & Catalonia)  ibid.    

 

 

121,284.  One of the most savage civil conflicts Europe has ever seen.  The civil war lasted from 1936 to 1939.  It cost perhaps half a million lives.  It ruined cities, towns and villages.  For some  the victors  it was a crusade against godless revolution; for others  the defeated it was a struggle against the forces of reaction that had oppressed Spain for generations.  The Spanish civil war still haunts the world’s imagination.  (Spain & Spanish Civil War & Anarchy & Catalonia)  The Spanish Civil War I: Prelude to Tragedy, Granada TV 1983

 

121,285.  On July 13th 1936 a group of army officers rebelled against the government of the Spanish republic.  Workers took up arms to fight the rising.  And what began as a military coup led to almost three years of civil war.  For both sides, political opponents became enemies to be hunted down and killed.  (Spain & Spanish Civil War & Anarchy & Catalonia)  ibid.

 

121,286.  The monarchy had fallen without violence … He went unresisting into exile.  (Spain & Spanish Civil War & Anarchy & Catalonia)  ibid. 

 

121,287.  A powerful and deeply conservative church hostile to change; an army accustomed to having the last word in politics; a possessing class determined to defend its privileges.  (Spain & Spanish Civil War & Anarchy & Catalonia)  ibid.   

 

121,288.  One source of this left-wing opposition was anarchism, gathered round its trade union CNT, born during the bloody social conflicts of Barcelona in the early years of the century.  The CNT’s treed was anarcho-syndicalism, the belief that revolution would lead to total workers’ management.  (Spain & Spanish Civil War & Anarchy & Catalonia)  ibid.      

 

121,289.  They rejected all governments, monarchies or republics.  They fought for a society of equal cooperating human beings freed from the curse of private property, god and bosses.  (Spain & Spanish Civil War & Anarchy & Catalonia)  ibid.

 

121,290.  In 1936 with elections approaching once more, most of the left united in a popular front; the anarchists did not join but supported the popular front in order to rescue their own imprisoned supporters.  (Spain & Spanish Civil War & Anarchy & Catalonia)  ibid.

 

121,291.  A climate of violence allowed the Falange to flourish.  (Spain & Spanish Civil War & Anarchy & Catalonia)  ibid.  

 

 

121,322.  The civil war became the battlefield for international ideologies.  Before then it was Spain’s own revolution and counter-revolution.  Justice was swept away by random brutality.  (Spain & Spanish Civil War & Anarchy & Catalonia)  The Spanish Civil War II: Revolution, Counter-Revolution and Terror

 

121,323.  Around the country some sections of the army stayed loyal to the Republic.  So did half the Spanish people.  A pattern for the division of Spain was set.  (Spain & Spanish Civil War & Anarchy & Catalonia)  ibid.  

 

121,324.  The coup became a civil war, and the resistance became a revolution.  (Spain & Spanish Civil War & Anarchy & Catalonia)  ibid.

 

121,325.  ‘A lot of hatred had been accumulated.’  (Spain & Spanish Civil War & Anarchy & Catalonia)  ibid.  Peasant

 

121,326.  The anarchists had more than half a million supporters all over the country.  (Spain & Spanish Civil War & Anarchy & Catalonia)  ibid.  

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