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★ Great Britain: Early–1899 (II)

Great Britain Early to 1899 (II): see Great Britain & Great Britain Early - 1899 (I) & (III) & Great Britain: 1900 - Date & England & Scotland & Wales & Royal Family & Europe & European Union & British Empire & UK Foreign Relations & United Kingdom & Roman Empire & Anglo-Saxons & Vikings & Normans & Dark Ages & Middle Ages & Druids

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121,717.  Centuries ago Europe was a battleground fought over by kings and queens.  For hundreds of years power-hungry families fought for the right to rule.  And Europe transformed.  These rivalries shifted borders, destroyed cities and brought the population to its knees.  The fate of millions depended on their feuds and passions, their obsessions and betrayals.  (Europe & Great Britain & England & France)  Dan Jones, Britain’s War of Thrones: The Hundred Years War I, History 2018

 

121,718.  For 300 years the Capetian dynasty reigns in France, one of the most powerful kingdoms in Europe.  (Europe & Great Britain & England & France)  ibid.

 

121,719.  This bloody struggle was the longest war in European history: it became known as the Hundred Years War.  (Europe & Great Britain & England & France)  ibid.

 

121,720.  Edward III was now the undisputed master of England.  (Europe & Great Britain & England & France)  ibid. 

 

121,721.  Edward was coming for Philip’s throne.  (Europe & Great Britain & England & France)  ibid.  

 

121,722.  It’s difficult to imagine the scale of the disaster that took place at Cressy: more than 1,500 French lords and knights were killed and 10,000 soldiers were massacred by English arrows.  The English only lost 2 knights and 80 men.  (Europe & Great Britain & England & France)  ibid.

 

121,723.  In early 1348 a plague known as the Black Death swept across France killing one third of the population.  In August it jumped across the Channel.  (Europe & Great Britain & England & France & Epidemic)  ibid.

 

 

121,863.  1392: At the height of the Middle Ages the once great king of France was on his knees and struggling for life.  A king went mad.  A queen betrayed her people.  A rampaging enemy went roaring across the land.  The only hope was a peasant girl who said she was touched by God.  The hundred years’ war was tearing France apart.  (Europe & Great Britain & England & France & Middle Ages)  Dan Jones, Britain’s War of Thrones: The Hundred Years War II

 

121,864.  Henry (V) advanced towards Paris with no more than 8,000 troops.  (Europe & Great Britain & England & France & Middle Ages)  ibid.  

 

121,865.  John the Fearless had to stop Henry’s progress.  (Europe & Great Britain & England & France & Middle Ages)  ibid.   

 

121,866.  Charles trusted Joan and gave her a mission to fulfil.   (Europe & Great Britain & England & France & Middle Ages)  ibid.   

  

121,867.  Charles II was determined to king the England out of France once and for all.   (Europe & Great Britain & England & France & Middle Ages)  ibid.   

 

 

121,999.  In the 15th century Europe was a vipers’ nest of faction and intrigue.  England was torn apart by the Wars of the Roses.  On the continent, alliances constantly shifted as ambitious rulers plotted and backstabbed one another.  (Europe & Great Britain & England & France & Middle Ages)  Dan Jones, Britain’s War of Thrones: The Hundred Years’ War III  

 

122,000.  More than 2,000 on each side had lost their lives … Louis XI returned to Paris but his enemies refused to give up … With the death of Henry, King Louis had lost a key ally, and more tragedy was to strike France.  Once again, the Black Death returned.  (Europe & Great Britain & England & France & Middle Ages)  ibid.

 

122,001.  The lands of the Duchy of Burgundy combined with those of the Holy Roman Empire were now richer and more powerful than ever before.  And now they were a direct threat to the kingdom of France.  (Europe & Great Britain & England & France & Middle Ages)  ibid.

 

 

122,100.  Charles’ empire stretched from the North Sea to north Africa … not bad for a 17 year old, but still this wasn’t enough.  (Europe & Great Britain & England & France & Spain)  Dan Jones, Britain’s War of Thrones: The Hundred Years War IV

 

122,101.  Charles was unanimously elected Holy Roman emperor.  (Europe & Great Britain & England & France & Spain)  ibid.

 

122,102.  For three weeks Henry [VIII] and Francis [I] were inseparable … The Field of the Cloth of Gold was ultimately a waste of time.  (Europe & Great Britain & England & France & Spain)  ibid.    

 

122,103.  Francis had lost Italy, and to make matter worse, the heir to the throne and his brother were still held hostage in Spain.  (Europe & Great Britain & England & France & Spain)  ibid.    

 

122,104.  Both men [Charles & Francis] swore a ten-year truce … Europe was at peace for now.  (Europe & Great Britain & England & France & Spain)  ibid.   

 

 

136,099.  Today we take for granted the motorways, A-roads and city streets.  Over 2,000 miles of them that form the skeleton road map of Britain.  And all because of the Romans.  With their ingenuity and dogged determination to conquer everything in their path.  (Road & Great Britain)  Dan Jones, Walking Britain’s Roman Roads I, Channel 5 2020

 

136,100.  In nearly 400 years of occupation the Romans changed Britain for ever by bringing their armies, ideas, buildings and religion.  But the Romans couldn’t have done any of it without one thing – their roads.  (Road & Great Britain & Roman Empire)  ibid.  

 

136,101.  Watling Street: running all the way from the Kent coast to the Midlands and on towards the West borders, Watling Street has two defining features: it was the first road that the Romans built in Britain, and at 240 miles it was also the longest.  The story of Watling Street is the story of the Roman invasion.  (Road & Great Britain & Roman Empire)  ibid.  

 

136,102.  The River Fleet: Fleet Street runs directly over the ancient watercourse.  Within 20 years the Romans had built a small town roughly half a square mile in size with a fortified garrison.  Londinium rapidly began a thriving hub, providing road links across Britain and to the larger empire across the channel.  (Road & Great Britain & London & Roman Empire)  ibid.         

 

136,103.  Verulamium (St Albans): it grew up along this street to become one of the largest and most prosperous towns in Roman Britain … Verulamium had buildings such as a theatre, houses with underfloor heating and beautiful mosaic floors, just like Rome itself.   (Road & Great Britain & Roman Empire)  ibid.  

 

136,104.  Boudica’s revolt may have been quashed on Watling Street but the war between the Romans and the native Britons raged on.  Many of the tribes who lived here didn’t take kindly to being controlled by a foreign tribe.  (Road & Great Britain & Roman Empire)  ibid.     

 

 

136,105.  Ermine Street: the Romans’ straightest road which runs north from their capital in London to what became their second city in Britain – York, founded in around 100 A.D.  Most of Ermine Street is still in use today, though we know it better as the A1.  This is Bishopsgate right in the heart of the city of London and it’s the start of Ermine Street proper.  (Road & Great Britain & London & Roman Empire)  Dan Jones, Walking Britain’s Roman Roads II: Ermine Street   

 

136,106.  The [London] Mithraeum was built around 1,700 years ago.  It fell into ruin and was buried when the Romans left our land in the 5th century.  It was uncovered in 1954 when an office block was built near Cannon Street, though it’s been moved to a new site in recent years.  (Road & Great Britain & London & Temple & Roman Empire)  ibid.   

 

136,107.  The Romans paved this road all the way to York, making one of the straightest roads they ever built, and shared their religious beliefs with our native tribes.  Like many of Britain’s Roman roads, Ermine Street had been adapted over the passing centuries, and it’s now part of our modern road system.  (Road & Great Britain & Roman Empire)  ibid.

 

 

136,121.  From the very first road across Kent which powered their invasion to the vital routes which helped them conquer most of Britain before being beaten into retreat by the Scots.  (Road & Great Britain & Roman Empire)  Dan Jones, Walking Britain’s Roman Roads III: Dere Street & Stanegate

 

136,122.  Two important roads which intersect in the north-east of Britain: Dere Street and Stain Gate: together they were integral to the expansion of the Roman Empire here.  Dere Street runs for 226 miles: it heads north from York and loosely follows the route of the A1 … Stanegate: a key east-west route.  (Road & Great Britain & Roman Empire)  ibid.  

 

136,123.  Dere Street, Stanegate and Hadrian’s Gate are part of a story about Roman military and colonial ambition in Britain.  (Road & Great Britain & Roman Empire)  ibid.

 

136,124.  Hadrian’s Wall: An awe-inspiring defence system manned by 10,000 soldiers and measuring more than 4 metres in height.  (Road & Great Britain & Border & Roman Empire)  ibid.

 

 

136,127.  Fosse Way: Stretching for 230 miles through the heart of England, the route starts in Exeter and runs through Devon towards the spa town of Bath, then it’s on through the Cotswolds and the West Midlands roughly following the route of the A46; it ends at the cathedral city of Lincoln.  (Road & Great Britain & Roman Empire)  Walking Britain’s Roman Roads s1e4

 

136,128.  A ditch built to defend the western limits of Roman territory, and fosse is the Latin word for ditch.  (Road & Great Britain & Roman Empire)  ibid.  

 

 

136,129.  Ermin Way: It’s a road that cuts into the heart of industrial Roman Britain … [and] stretches for around 75 miles and was effectively the M4 of its day.  (Road & Great Britain & Roman Empire)  Walking Britain’s Roman Roads V  

 

136,130.  Roman agricultural expertise reshaped the British landscape and industrialised farming for the good of the empire.  (Road & Great Britain & Roman Empire)  ibid.  

 

 

136,138.  Stane Street which runs from London all the way down to the south coast.  (Road & Great Britain & London & Roman Empire)  Walking Britain’s Roman Roads VI: Stane Street

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