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This neo-fascist bombing began a decade of terror. Italian Noir: The Story of Italian Crime Fiction, BBC 2010
In 1978 the kidnapping and murder of former prime minister Aldo Moro troubled Italians. ibid.
The Italian State is diseased. The Bolshevik cancer has started to corrode it. We have to amputate before the infection spreads. And to do this, we have to pool our strength. Romanzo Criminale s1e9 starring Francesco Montanari & Vinicio Marchioni & Alessandro Roja & Marco Bocci & Daniela Virgilio & Andrea Sartoretti et al, professor fascist
There has been an explosion at Bologna Station. Romanzo Criminale s1e11, radio news
This bomb business means trouble. Even more than the Moro kidnapping. ibid. Freddo
The body of Roberto Calvi was found this morning in London hanging from the scaffolding under Blackfriars Bridge. It would appear that the most likely cause of death is suicide. Romanzo Criminale s2e4, television news
It was also a construct of real-life covert operations – It is absolutely crucial to understand through to the late 1980s a highly secretive sub-section of different Intelligence services – Britain, American and Western European – participated in a very sophisticated Nato-led operation to engineer terrorist attacks inside Western Europe, which could then be blamed on the Soviet Union ... Winston Churchill gave the original order .. The idea was to galvanise public opinion against left-wing policies and parties when it was considered they were getting too popular. Nafeez Ahmed
Now this whole process [Gladio] continued until the 1980s generating immense fear throughout Western Europe. Nafeez Ahmed
It has now been documented beyond a doubt in the historical records that the CIA/MI6 teamed up with very very secretive parallel elements of European intelligence services and orchestrated terrorist attacks to mobilise the public against the Left, against the communists and so forth, and this would be really shocking to people if they knew that this is what happened. This is what happened. The best book about on it is Daniel Ganser’s book NATO’s Secret Armies. This is serious academic stuff. Nafeez Mosaddeq Ahmed, Institute for Policy Research & Development, interview Oil, Smoke & Mirrors, ‘The War on Freedom: Causes & Consequences of 9/11’
Gladio as it is defined nowadays forms part of what I have always referred to as ‘parallel structures’. This is an invisible army that is not poised for battle against a hypothetical invader, but rather one meant to be used internally against what the military has always called the Fifth Column of the USSR: the Communist Party and the extreme left. Vincenzo Vinciguerra, former member of neo-fascist group Ordine Nuovo, televised interview
These parallel structures used the extreme Right for the simple reason that they fought the communists. In 1945 the Second World War ended and the Third World War started. ibid.
You were supposed to attack civilians, women, children, innocent people outside the political arena. For one simple reason: to force the Italian public to turn to the State, turn to the regime and ask for greater security. That was precisely the role of the Right in Italy. It placed itself at the service of the State which created a strategy aptly called the Strategy of Tension. In so far as they had to get people to accept that at any moment over a period of thirty years, from 1960 to the mid-1980s, a State of Emergency could be declared. ibid.
They remain unpunished because a State cannot condemn itself. ibid.
The massacre at Bologna came at a time of maximum concern on the part of the Italian, American and Allied Secret Services because of the electoral success of the Italian Communist Party. The massacre at Bologna responds, as do all the other massacres, to the logic of a State who no longer knowing how to confront a political enemy resorts to extreme measures of violence, attributable to extremists on the Left. ibid.
Ordine Nuovo never had its own ideology. They called themselves National Socialists. ibid.
For forty years secret terrorist organisations, many trained by Western intelligence agencies, have manipulated the political control of European sovereign states by a campaign of terror and murder. Originally part of a secret network, these groups changed from being defenders of state security into attackers of the established political order. Until two years ago that secret network was generally known by the single word Gladio. Timewatch: Operation Gladio: The Ring Masters
As the Germans withdrew they left behind secret agents in the countries they’d occupied. The secret services called such groups ‘stay-behinds’. For the retreating Germans they were the staunchest believers. They were selected from the SS and fascist black legions. They would become the foot soldiers of the next war about to begin – the Cold War. ibid.
Secret Service documents from several member countries reveal Gladio to be a European-wide organisation including Denmark, Norway, Holland, Spain, Turkey and Greece. All Gladio’s secret information is coordinated in Brussels through the CPC – Clandestine Planning Committee – which meets periodically, with the chairmanship being handed from one country’s secret service to the next. The entire organisation is handled outside NATO. ibid.
In 1980 a bomb exploded at Bologna Railway Station which killed eighty-six people. Six years later an official report revealed the existence of an invisible government in Italy run by the state secret services and groups of political terrorists. It also identified a military and civilian organisation under which neo-fascist groups were allowed to commit atrocities against civilians for political motives. Timewatch: Operation Gladio: The Puppeteers
On December 7th 1970 Prince Valerio Borghese organised neo-fascists in an attempt to overthrow the Italian government. The Italian ministry of the interior was to be captured. But after units had moved into position, a telephone call cancelled the entire operation. In the aftermath of the aborted coup, the existence of the parallel structures of Gladio was uncovered. ibid.
On March 16th 1978 the Italian left-wing terrorists kidnapped the former Italian prime minister Mr Aldo Moro. On that day the Italian parliament was about to debate the inclusion of the Italian Communist Party in a government of national unity for the first time since 1948. Aldo Moro had long believed that this was the only solution for political stability in Italy. Timewatch: Operation Gladio: Foot Soldiers
Bologna in the ’70s also comes to mind. The attacks on the train station in Bologna – 15 years later it was revealed they had been planned by Italian Intelligence in cooperation with the CIA. Because it was necessary to prevent the rise to power of a moderate Leftist government, with inclusion of the Communist Party in Italy. So it is not unusual for False Flag Operations to be carried out and for the blame to be put on someone else. Jochen Scholz, retired German Air Force
US Army Intelligence must have the means of launching special operations which will convince host country governments and public opinion of the reality of the insurgent danger. US Army Intelligence should seek to penetrate the insurgency by means of agents on special assignment, with the task of forming special actions groups among the most radical elements of the insurgency. Alleged US Army Intelligence Field Manual
There may be times when HC [Host Country] governments show passivity or indecision in face of Communist or Communist-inspired subversion, and react with inadequate vigor to intelligence estimates transmitted by US agencies. Such situations are particularly likely to arise when the insurgency seeks to achieve tactical advantage by temporarily refraining from violence, thus lulling MC authorities into a state of false security. In such cases, US Army Intelligence must have the means of launching special operations which will convince HC government and public opinion of the reality of the insurgent danger and of the necessity of counteraction. ibid. 30-31: Appendix E
Deception is a state of mind and the mind of the State. James Jesus Angleton, head of CIA counter-intelligence 1954-1974
The man actually responsible for the Petiano bombing was Vincenzo Cinciguerra. 7/7 The Big Picture
Two members of a neo-fascist group were convicted of the [Bologna] bombing. Also convicted for diverting the investigation were two Italian intelligence agents who were members of the P2 Masonic lodge. ibid.
It became clear that P2 was not just a Masonic Order but a CIA-funded parallel government. The list of members of the lodge was found in a raid on Licio Gelli’s house in 1981. Among the 962 names were the heads of all three Intelligence Services, forty-eight MPs, industrialists, bankers, media moguls, journalists, civil servants, judges, military officials, and Sylvio Berlusconi. ibid.