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★ Particles

Particles: see Atom & Higgs-Boson & Matter & Antimatter & Universe & Electrons & Quantum Physics & Particle Accelerators & Neutrinos & Physics & Chemistry & Laws & Photon & String Theory & M Theory

Julius Lothar Meyer - Isaac Newton - Michael Faraday - John Muir - Richard Feynman TV & BBC Horizon - Jim Al-Khalili TV - Arthur Stanley Eddington - Richard Morris - Ernest Rutherford - Enrico Fermi - Robert Winston TV - George Gamow - Birth of the Universe TV - Morgan Freeman TV - Brian Greene TV - Steven Weinberg - Michio Kaku - Brian Cox TV - Edward Witten - William J Kaufmann - Martin Rees - Stephen Hawking TV - Ken Lang - Death of the Sun TV - Extreme Universe TV - Lawrence M Krauss - Star Trek: Voyager TV - Roger Penrose - John Gribbin - Alan Guth - Werner Heisenberg - Erwin Schrodinger - David Deutsch - Marcus du Sautoy TV - Raymond Chiao - Murray Gell-Mann - John Updike - The Universe TV - Bernard Carr - Kathy Sykes - Alex Filippenko - Weird or What? TV - First on the Moon: The Untold Story TV - How the Universe Works TV - Neil deGrasse Tyson TV - Timothy Leary - Scientific American online - The Simulation Hypothesis 2015 -    

 

 

84,685.  That the as yet undivided chemical elements are absolutely irreducible substances, is currently at least very unlikely.  Rather it seems, that the atoms of elements are not the final, but only the immediate constituents of the molecules of both the elements and the compounds – the Molekeln or molecule as foremost division of matter, the atoms being considered as second order, in turn consisting of matter particles of a third higher order.  Julius Lothar Meyer 1870

 

 

84,686.  Query 31.  Have not the small Particles of Bodies certain Powers, Virtues or Forces, by which they act at a distance, not only upon the Rays of Light for reflecting, refracting and reflecting them, but also upon one another for producing a great part of the Phænomena of Nature?  Sir Isaac Newton, Opticks 1704

 

 

84,687.  Although we know nothing of what an atom is, yet we cannot resist forming some idea of a small particle, which represents it to the mind ... There is an immensity of facts which justify us in believing that the atoms of matter are in some way endowed or associated with electrical powers, to which they owe their most striking qualities, and amongst them their mutual chemical affinity.  (Particle & Atom)  Michael Faraday, Researches in Electricity 1839

 

 

84,688.  One is constantly reminded of the infinite lavishness and fertility of Nature – inexhaustible abundance amid what seems enormous waste.  And yet when we look into any of her operations that lie within reach of our minds, we learn that no particle of her material is wasted or worn out.  It is eternally flowing from use to use, beauty to yet higher beauty; and we soon cease to lament waste and death, and rather rejoice and exult in the imperishable, unspendable wealth of the universe.  (Particle & Nature)  John Muir, My First Summer in the Sierra 1911

 

 

84,674.  So a program was launched to study the interaction of Protons and Neutrons and it was discovered as time went on that the law looked a little more complicated ultimately.  That it was extremely complicated.  It was as complicated as it could be!  Professor Richard Feynman, interview Horizon: Strangeness Minus Three, BBC 1964

 

48,954.  The nuclear part of the forces as we’ve discovered has one peculiar characteristic: that is that you can change a neutron for a proton and it doesn’t make any difference to the force.  We say that the nuclear forces have a symmetry.  (Nuclear & Particle)  ibid. 

 

48,955.  Is there an extension, an additional symmetry between the particles?  (Nuclear & Particle)  ibid.

 

 

84,673.  Two years ago a group of experimental particle physicists of Brookhaven, New York, found a new particle with a unique characteristic of strangeness minus three.  Their discovery was the climax of a dramatic two-year search ... the omega minus.  Horizon: Strangeness Minus Three, BBC 1964 

 

 

48,967.  French engineers and scientists are building a great scientific machine.  It’s a nuclear accelerator called the Vivitron.  It’s cost eight billion pounds.  And part of it has come from Britain.  (Nuclear & Atom & Particle Accelerator & Experiment & Particle & Science)  Horizon: An Expensive Theology 1992

 

48,968.  They’re working with the nucleus of the magnesium atom.  The magnesium atoms are accelerated down this huge tower ... The nuclei are fired into a target also of magnesium.  (Nuclear & Atom & Particle Accelerator & Experiment & Particle & Science)  ibid.

 

48,969.  The funding was established by treaty.  (Nuclear & Atom & Particle Accelerator & Experiment & Particle & Science)  ibid.

 

48,970.  The first Cyclotron was a giant of its day.  (Nuclear & Atom & Particle Accelerator & Experiment & Particle & Science)  ibid.

 

48,971.  The collision creates a tiny fireball getting close to the Big Bang at the start of our universe.  (Nuclear & Atom & Particle Accelerator & Experiment & Particle & Science)  ibid.

 

48,972.  Quarks: five have been detected.  (Nuclear & Atom & Particle Accelerator & Experiment & Particle & Science)  ibid. 

 

48,973.  Cern costs three hundred and fifty million pounds a year ... Cern is governed by international treaty.  (Nuclear & Atom & Particle Accelerator & Experiment & Particle & Science)  ibid.

 

48,974.  Mrs Thatcher even visited Cern to enthuse over the experiments.  (Nuclear & Atom & Particle Accelerator & Experiment & Particle & Science)  ibid.

 

48,975.  The particle physicists are asking for funds for the next stage of their research.  (Nuclear & Atom & Particle Accelerator & Experiment & Particle & Science)  ibid.

 

48,976.  The Americans are planning an even bigger rival.  Here in Texas they’ve started construction on the Super Conducting Super Collider.  (Nuclear & Atom & Particle Accelerator & Experiment & Particle & Science)  ibid.

 

 

5,577.  Life clearly had begun during this maelstrom ... Comets and asteroids also shed tiny organic particles into space – they’re called Inter-planetary Dust Particles.  (Life & Comet & Asteroid & Particle)  Horizon: Life Is Impossible 1993

 

 

3,047.  The idea is that at the beginning there was just a soup of mass and energy existing at a single point.  Then sub-atomic particles separated out from the energy.  There was now a universe with tiny irregularities of mass called quantum fluctuations.  Scientists believe that somehow these fluctuations grew to become the ripples on the background radiation.   And it was those ripples that allowed gravity to get to work to form the galaxies.  (Space & Universe & Cosmology & Big Bang & Particles & Gravity & Galaxy)  Horizon: Whispers of Creation 1994

 

 

79,283.  The photons arrive at the slits one at a time.  So those that get through the screen on the other side should make two bright lines.  They shouldn’t interfere and make the full pattern of stripes, but they do.  (Light & Photon & Particle & Quantum Physics)  Horizon: The Time Lords 1996

 

 

82,864.  Catching these ghosts was one of the greatest challenges scientists have ever faced.  Now experiments have revealed that they are even stranger than anyone thought.  Could the tiny particles that are passing through you right now be the very reason we all exist?  (Neutrino & Particle)  Horizon: Project Poltergeist 2004

 

82,865.  For decades [Raymond] Davis and [John] Bahcall refused to give up, convinced that they were on to something important.  This is the story of how an experiment which no-one believed has led to an astonishing discovery ... All through the eighties Ray continued to improve his detector, and year after year the results were the same: he could only find one third of the neutrinos John Bahcall had predicted.  (Neutrino & Particle)  ibid.

 

82,866.  On June 14th 1956 [Frederick] Reines and his colleagues announced the detection of the neutrino.  (Neutrino & Particle)  ibid.

 

82,867.  In this theory neutrinos would be constantly changing from type to type as they travelled through space.  What started as an electron neutrino would later look like a muon neutrino ... Was this why Ray saw only a third of the neutrinos John said the Sun was making?  (Neutrino & Particle)  ibid.

 

82,868.  There was just one problem.  It was all to do with Time.  For anything to change Time must pass.  But the standard model said the neutrino was a massless particle travelling at the speed of light.  And according to Einstein if you’re travelling at the speed of light, there is no Time.  And therefore no change.  (Neutrino & Particle)  ibid.

 

82,869.  But then scientists made a discovery that completely transformed their ideas about the neutrino ... Contrary to all theory neutrinos did have a sense of Time.  It was a bombshell.  Scientists suddenly realised that the Standard Model had got neutrinos completely wrong.  This did have mass.  They could change flavour.  (Neutrino & Particle)  ibid.

 

82,870.  The answer was they were both right.  It was the Standard Model that was wrong.  (Neutrino & Particle)  ibid.

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