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I have never seen to my knowledge a man, woman or child who was in favor of producing a perfect equality, social and political, between Negroes and white men. Abraham Lincoln, cited Chicago Times, September 1958
No day ever dawns for the black man. Nor is it looked for. For a slave it is all night. All night for ever. Freed black man
You are talking about the advent of the black organised crime. The Black Mafia. Terry Hillard, Chicago Police Superintendent retired
In south-central Los Angeles on April 29th 1992 one of the worst race riots erupted in American history. The trigger was the acquittal of four white police officers in the beating of Rodney King. Gangland: Race War, History 2007
In the late 1960s many gang members joined the Black Nationalist Movement. Groups like the Black Panthers promoted black power and self-defence. And launched social programmes to help the urban poor. ibid.
One out of every twenty-one black American males will be murdered in their lifetime. Most will die at the hands of another black male. Boyz n the Hood 1991 starring Ice Cube & Cuba Gooding junior & Laurence Fishburn & Morris Chestnut & Nia Long & Angela Bassett & Tyra Ferrell et al, director John Singleton, opening caption
I’ve got a built-in disguise: they never look at me, they never look at my face, my nose, my lame foot, all they know is I’m black. Black Caesar 1973 starring Fred Williamson & Art Lund & Julius W Harris & Gloria Hendry & D’Urville Martin & Minnie Gentry & Philip Roye & William Wellman junior & Don Predro Colley, director Larry Cohen, dude to Mafia guy
Their conquest in the Caribbean and in West Africa earned them two Victoria Crosses and the personal favour of Queen Victoria. But these heroes of the empire were despised by whites and seen as traitors to their race by blacks ... The history of the West India Regiment. Gary Beadle, The First Black Britons, BBC 2007
The British travelled to West Africa to trade with African chiefs and their European agents for slaves to bring to the Caribbean and the Americas. ibid.
In 1791 the French Revolution inspired slaves in the French West Indian colony of Haiti to rebel against their masters. ibid.
By 1799 there were twelve West India regiments. ibid.
White men were legally allowed to abuse black soldiers. ibid.
In 1807 the government passes a law that frees all of the regiments’ 10,000-plus black troops at a stroke ... They are the very first black Britons. ibid.
White supremacy was brutally re-imposed throughout the old Confederacy. The white south won that war of attrition. It would take another century before blacks gained back the ground for which so many had given their lives. Ken Burns, The Civil War: The Better Angels of Our Nature, PBS 1990
Over the years black baseball stars played white Major League stars at least 438 times in off-season exhibition games. The whites won 129 of those post-season games; blacks won 309. Ken Burns, Baseball: Shadow Ball, PBS 1994
Black players excelled under conditions big-leaguers never had to face. ibid.
Kansas City Monarchs World’s Colored Champions Base Ball Club. ibid. team photograph
Founded in 1920 the Monarchs dominated black baseball for more than twenty-five years. ibid.
It is true that there had never been any written law banning black players ... The hypocrisy of fighting racism abroad while ignoring it at home proved clearer. Ken Burns, Baseball: The National Pastime
Black leaders again pressed Landis for an answer. ibid.
Fifteen out of sixteen club owners opposed integration. ibid.
Between 1950 and 1960 ... the now-dying Negro leagues sent their greatest players to the Majors. Ken Burns, Baseball: The Capital of Baseball
Other black players followed in Jackie Robinson’s turbulent wake: Larry Doby ... Roy Campenella ... Ernie Banks ... Frank Robinson ... Henry Aaron ... Curtis Charles Flood … ibid.
Flood and his black team-mates had to endure the segregated facilities and persistent racism that still plagued black ball players and black Americans alike. Baseball: A Whole New Ball Game
I will die standing up for the freedom of my people. Martin Luther King
If you will protest courageously, and yet with dignity and Christian love, when the history books are written in future generations, the historians will have to pause and say, There lived a great people – a black people – who injected new meaning and dignity into the veins of civilisation. Martin Luther King
I would hope that the FBI would come out and say something that I think is much more significant. And that is it is amazing that so few Negros have turned to communism in the light of their desperate plight. I think it is one of the most amazing developments of the twentieth-century how loyal the Negro has remained to America despite his long night of oppression and discrimination. Martin Luther King
If you’re born in America with a black skin, you’re born in prison. Malcolm X, interview June 1963
Abraham Lincoln tricked the so-called Negro into thinking that he was free. He did nothing but trick the Negro, fooled the Negro and used the Negro the same as every other politician. Malcolm X
I am for violence if non-violence means we continue postponing a solution to the American black man’s problem just to avoid violence. Malcolm X
We want to be recognised and respected as human beings ... Our motto is By Any Means Necessary. Malcolm X, interview BBC 1964
I don’t think there’s any gradual coming together. ibid.
You can’t legislate good will. ibid.