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In July 1192 Richard the Lionheart, King of England, valiant crusader knight, stood with his Holy Warriors preparing for a strike on Jerusalem. Thomas Asbridge, The Crusades 2/3: The Clash of Titans, BBC 2012
Jihad literally means struggle, but in the Middle Ages this could represent a fight against internal impurity or a sacred physical struggle – a Holy War, and its message could be spread by poetry. ibid.
Saladin was quickly becoming the premier Muslim leader in the East ... He united the disparate Muslim factions into a coherent army. ibid.
The Christian army marching in the height of summer was being led into a waterless killing zone. ibid.
Jerusalem was back in Muslim hands. ibid.
In June 1191 Richard the Lionheart sailed down the coast of Palestine. ibid.
The Third Crusade had achieved a categorical victory. ibid.
During Richard’s long absence from home his brother John had been plotting to take control of England. ibid.
Against his better judgment the Lionheart began a second advance having effectively lost control of his Crusade. ibid.
The Lionheart failed to lead the third Crusade to victory. ibid.
Two centuries of religious war. Thomas Asbridge, The Crusades 3/3: Victory & Defeat
These Christian outposts were ruled by bickering warlords. ibid.
The power and wealth of the Hospitallers. This is a monument to rival anything in the Middle Ages ... Like their Templar brethren, they embraced the Crusading ideal. ibid.
Commercial contacts between East and West blossomed. ibid.
Louis was determined to bring Jerusalem back into the Christian fold. ibid.
Louis IX was the perfect Crusader king. ibid.
The Mongols and the Mamluks are the big players. ibid.
In 1189 Richard declared war on his father. This time Henry faced defeat. Simon Schama, A History of Britain s1e3: Dynasty, BBC 2000
The Plantagenets’ future now lay in the hands of Richard, a dynamic and bloodthirsty warrior. Robert Bartlett, The Plantagenets I, BBC 2014
Almost one thousand years ago Richard I, King of England, set out to war. Not for power or wealth but for God. This was a new kind of war. One that still casts its shadow today. For it would pit Crusader against Jihadi. East against West. Richard the Lionheart: Warriors
Saladin’s scorched earth tactics began to work like a cancer in the Crusader army, spreading dissension. Richard, as the only king among the commanders, led the crusade in battle. But he was not in political control. Important political decisions were taken by the Council of War, a body made up of all the different factions. ibid.
The retreat from Jerusalem was a humiliation for Richard. During the next six months he tried everything to make amends, moving down towards Egypt and attacking Saladin’s supply routes. But without the French he never had enough men to strike a decisive blow. ibid.
The Templar Army began its gruesome desert march towards Tiberius without water or shelter. Weak and disorientated. That evening was when Saladin’s forces closed in to surround them. In the attack that followed ... it was the worst single military disaster in the Holy Land. The surviving Christian knights were sold into slavery. The Templar Code, History 2005
Saladin took the city a few months later. The Christians fought back under Richard the Lionheart, retaking the city in 1229. But held it only briefly. In 1244 the Turks recaptured Jerusalem, effectively bringing an end to Christian rule. ibid.
Richard’s early encounter with Saladin’s forces resulted in decisive victories for the Christians. But taking Jerusalem proved much more difficult. Saladin’s armies were strong, and the open ground around the walled city made it difficult to mount an effective attack. The Muslims and the Christians were at a stalemate. On the 2nd September 1892 both sides agreed to a truce. Decoding the Past: The Koran
Hearing of Richard’s sickness he sends gifts of fruit and water. Mystery Files: Saladin, National Geographic 2010
He was a bad king: his great exploits, his military skill, his splendour and extravagance, his poetical tastes, his adventurous spirit, do not serve to cloak his entire want of sympathy, or even consideration, for his people. He was no Englishman, but it does not follow that he gave to Normandy, Anjou, or Aquitaine the love or care that he denied to his kingdom. His ambition was that of a mere warrior: he would fight for anything whatever, but he would sell everything that was worth fighting for. The glory that he sought was that of victory rather than conquest. William Stubbs, The Constitutional History of England
He [Henry II] was defeated in battle by Richard and the King of France. Monarchy by David Starkey s1e4: Dynasty, Channel 4 2004
Richard ruled the family empire for almost ten years until he was mortally wounded in a siege here in France. But during all that time Richard spent only six months in England. ibid.