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6,915.  Garibaldi united Italy into one country.  Garibaldi was as great in his day as Mussolini is in ours.  (Teacher & Italy & Great)  The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie II starring Geraldine McEwan & Amanda Kirby & Lynsey Baxter & Vivienne Ross et al, Brodie to class

 

 

131,391.  Many believe that the CIA continued to meddle in Italian elections for decades, making sure Italy was always governed by a right of centre government.  But some historians claim that wasn’t the end of interference in Italian politics.  They claim that after three decades of anti-communist parties in Italy, the US along with Nato went far further, brutally murdering Italy’s popular prime minister Aldo Moro.  (Conspiracy & Cold War & Assassination: Aldo Moro & Italy & Gladio)  Conspiracy s1e6: The Cold War Files   

 

 

83,257.  But what the Normans were really hungry for was territory and the fertile plains of southern Italy must have presented a tempting site.  Southern Italy was a promised land ripe for the picking.  (Norman & Italy & France)  Professor Robert Bartlett, The Normans III: Normans of the South

 

83,258.  Muslim Sicily was a difficult island to conquer.  (Norman & Italy & France)  ibid.

 

 

86,545.  Florence 1389: a boy is baptised into a Medieval world ... His name was Cosimo de’ Medici.  From humble beginnings his dynasty would seek power and influence and not stop until they had secured the papacy itself.  (Renaissance & Italy)  Empires Special: Medici: Godfathers of the Renaissance: Birth of a Dynasty, PBS

 

86,546.  Florence was also a cauldron of creativity.  (Renaissance & Italy)  ibid.

 

86,547.  The Medici would protect and pay for the greatest artists and thinkers of their age: Michelangelo et al.  (Renaissance & Italy)  ibid.

 

86,548.  The Medici: godfathers of the Renaissance.  (Renaissance & Italy)  ibid.

 

86,549.  Cosimo de’ Medici and his friends were searching for lost secrets from the ancient world.  (Renaissance & Italy)  ibid.

 

86,550.  The Medici bank was a small-scale operation.  (Renaissance & Italy)  ibid.

 

86,551.  [Filippo] Brunelleschi ... a maverick architect ... Brunelleschi's vision would resurrect forgotten concepts of the past.  (Renaissance & Italy & Architecture)  ibid.

 

86,552.  He would have to re-write the rules of Western architecture.  (Renaissance & Italy & Architecture)  ibid.

 

86,553.  Brunelleschi also tried to escape the limitations of his age.  (Renaissance & Italy & Architecture)  ibid.

 

86,554.  Cosimo was accused of treason against the city and her people.  (Renaissance & Italy)  ibid.

 

86,555.  Money talked and Cosimo walked.  (Renaissance & Italy)  ibid.

 

86,556.  The Medici were back in business.  (Renaissance & Italy)  ibid.

 

86,557.  The Council brought together the greatest mix of thinkers, artists, merchants, and churchmen that the world had ever seen.  (Renaissance & Italy)  ibid.

 

 

86,558.  By the mid-15th century the Medici family had fought their way to power in Florence.  They had dictated the taste of the city, presiding over a revolution in Western culture – the Renaissance.  (Renaissance & Italy)  Empires Special: Medici: Godfathers of the Renaissance II: The Magnificent Medici, PBS

 

86,559.  The greatest artists the world had ever seen.  (Renaissance & Italy)  ibid.

 

86,560.  Behind the glory lay violence.  (Renaissance & Italy)  ibid.

 

86,561.  Lorenzo worked to protect the future of the Medici dynasty.  (Renaissance & Italy)  ibid.

 

86,562.  He was an artist who would take the world apart ... Leonardo da Vinci.  (Renaissance & Italy)  ibid.

 

86,563.  Lorenzo decided to bring Michelangelo into his family.  (Renaissance & Italy)  ibid.

 

86,564.  Under Lorenzo, Florence had reached new heights of culture and sophistication.  (Renaissance & Italy)  ibid.

 

86,565.  [Sandro] Botticelli ... hurled his own paintings into the flames ... The Bonfire of the Vanities.  (Renaissance & Italy)  ibid.

 

 

86,566.  For over a century one family had run the city of Florence.  They had carved their name into the heart of the Florentine Renaissance – the Medici.  But at the height of their success they had been toppled by a sudden revolution.  Now two cousins reigned as brothers.  (Renaissance & Italy)  Empires Special: Medici: Godfathers of the Renaissance III: The Medici Popes, PBS

 

86,567.  Fifteen years earlier the sculptor had been adopted into the greatest family in Florence.  Michelangelo had moved in with the Medici.  (Renaissance & Italy)  ibid.

 

86,568.  A bloody civil war exploded in the streets of Florence.  (Renaissance & Italy)  ibid.

 

86,569.  They had begun to procure corpses from the city’s hospitals for ‘private research’.  The pioneer of this controversial method was the city’s most talked about personality – Leonardo da Vinci.  (Renaissance & Italy)  ibid.

 

86,570.  Machiavelli was a single minded patriot determined to defend the city from Medici dictatorship.  (Renaissance & Italy)  ibid.

 

86,571.  From now on Cardinal Giovanni de Medici would be known as ... Pope Leo X ... Within just one year of his extravagant life-style he had emptied the papal coffers.  Soon Leo X owed money to every bank in Rome.  Behind the scenes Julio was pawning the papal jewels.  So Leo turned to the source of income only available to the Pope himself – the sale of forgiveness.  (Renaissance & Italy & Pope)  ibid.

 

86,572.  Luther’s ninety-five thesis was an indictment on the sale of salvation.  And a direct attack on the pope.  (Renaissance & Italy & Pope)  ibid.

 

86,573.  The Bull of Excommunication condemned Luther to Hell.  (Renaissance & Italy & Pope)  ibid.

 

86,574.  Within two years Giulio de Medici was crowned Pope Clement VII.  (Renaissance & Italy & Pope)  ibid.

 

86,575.  Enemies of the Medici in Florence were already running riot.  The rioters struck without discrimination.  (Renaissance & Italy)  ibid.

 

86,576.  The corrupt, disastrous reign of the Medici Popes was over.  (Renaissance & Italy & Pope)  ibid.

 

86,577.  Future generations would take the Renaissance beyond the realm of art and sculpture and change man’s understanding of the universe for ever.  (Renaissance & Italy)  ibid.

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