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Iron
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★ Iron

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How the Universe Works TV - BBC Horizon - Mankind: The Story of All of Us TV - Jacob Bronowski TV - Bettany Hughes TV - Jeremy Black TV - Fred Dibnah TV - Mark Williams TV - Ronald Top TV - Samuel Smiles - Charles Collins - Jim Al-Khalili TV - Birth of the Universe TV - Richard Miles TV - Michael Cremo - George Orwell -   

 

 

3,475.  Iron absorbs energy.  From the moment a massive star creates iron it only has seconds to live ... In a few seconds supernovas create more energy than our sun ever will.  (Star & Iron & Supernova & Universe)  How the Universe Works s1e4: Stars

 

 

3,935.  The Earth developed a large core of iron.  (Earth & Iron)  Horizon: Message in the Rocks 1979 

 

 

4,320.  Transform the planet: the age of iron – an age we still live in today.  (Humanity & Iron)  Mankind: The Story of All of Us II, History Channel 2012

 

4,321.  The fourth most common element in the Earth’s crust.  (Humanity & Iron)  ibid.

 

4,322.  A super-fuel – charcoal.  (Humanity & Iron)  ibid.

 

4,323.  Iron ushers in a new age of warfare: Sparta v Greece.  (Humanity & Iron & War)  ibid.

 

4,324.  A new type of technology – cast iron.  (Humanity & Iron)  ibid.

 

 

5,769.  Iron is a later discovery than copper because at every stage it needs more heat.  (Evolution & Iron & Human Being)  Jacob Bronowski, The Ascent of Man 1973 4/13: The Hidden Structure

 

 

5,803.  This was a heroic age – Thomas Telford felt that, spanning the landscape with iron.  (Evolution & Iron & Human Being & Engineering & Industrial Revolution)  Jacob Bronowski, The Ascent of Man 1973: The Drive For Power 8/13    

 

 

30,069.  People had discovered a new metal much more readily available that bronze – iron.  (Great Britain & England & Iron)  Bettany Hughes, Seven Ages of Britain 1500 B.C.- 43 A.D.

 

 

49,240.  Two-thirds of the world’s coal and half its iron.  (Industry & Industrial Revolution & Coal & Iron & Great Britain & England)  Professor Jeremy Black, Why the Industrial Revolution Happened Here, BBC 2013

 

 

112,036.  It were really coal and iron that started the industrial revolution.  Iron to make the boilers similar to this one, and coal of course to burn on them to make the steam to drive all the machinery.  (Industrial Revolution & Engineering & Steam & Coal & Iron)  Fred Dibnah’s Industrial Age e3: Iron & Steel, BBC 19999

 

 

112,368.  Robert Stephenson was in the forefront of creating a railway network which was to transform the lives of millions.  It was the age of iron.  (Engineering & Victoria & Railways & Industrial Revolution & Iron)  Fred Dibnah’s Victorian Heroes s1e1, BBC 2001

 

 

53,570.  The Lake District isn’t really an area most people associate with our industrial past and heavy industry.  Once upon a time round Workington and Barrow in Furnace there were great industrial centres and they mined iron ore in the hundreds of tons, and it were some of the best iron ore in all of England.  You know.  Alas, it’s all gone.  (Iron & Industrial Revolution & Great Britain & England & Steel & Engineering)  Fred Dibnah’s Made in Britain e3: The Source of Iron, BBC 2005

 

53,571.  All the ore mined at the Florence mine came here to the Workington steel works where is were converted by Bessemer converters into steel to manufacture railway lines.  (Iron & Industrial Revolution & Great Britain & England & Steel & Engineering)  ibid.

 

 

53,572.  We’re now in Falkirk which of course was the place where the industrial revolution in Scotland all started.  And here there is a great iron foundry called the Carron Iron Works that were opened in 1760.  After thirty years it employed a thousand men and became the biggest iron smelting plant in the whole of Europe.  (Iron & Industrial Revolution & Great Britain & Scotland & Steel & Engineering)  Fred Dinah’s Made in Britain e4: Castings   

 

53,573.  In 1950 there were more than two-hundred foundries like this in central Scotland.  Now this is one of the only ones left.  (Iron & Industrial Revolution & Great Britain & Scotland & Steel & Engineering)  ibid.

 

 

50,110.  Ironbridge: This is the world’s first cast-iron bridge.  Iron was so important round here that this place was regarded as the beginning or the cradle of the industrial revolution.  It wasn’t just bridges they made here.  (Iron & Bridge & Engineering & Industrial Revolution & Great Britain & England)  Fred Dibnah’s World of Steam, Steel and Stone e1: The Industrial Landscape, BBC 2006 

 

111,967.  ‘Up until the 1850s they only really cast-iron, you know.  And they really needed something a bit tougher.  And along came Henry Bessemer in 1855 and he invented this thing – a giant eggcup.’  (Steel & Iron & Engineering & Industrial Revolution & Great Britain & England)  ibid.  Fred  

 

 

48,077.  It was the growth in iron production that led to the great increase in the demand for coal.  (Coal & Mining & Engineering & Great Britain & England & Industrial Revolution & Iron)  Fred Dibnah’s World of Steam, Steel and Stone: Riches Beneath the Earth e8

 

 

53,574.  A beautiful piece of working iron: a standardised Telford gate design to be found all over his roads.  Looks almost art deco.  Except it’s 1820 not 1920.  (Iron & Industrial Revolution & Great Britain & England)  Mark Williams, Industrial Revelations: Working Iron e5

 

53,575.  What fired Telford’s ambition to create this incredible structure?  The answer lies in the specification for this wrought-iron suspension bridge.  The iron is to be best quality Shropshire iron.  The world’s first iron bridge had been constructed only forty-seven years before the Menai over the River Seven in Shropshire, the heart of the iron industry.  (Iron & Industrial Revolution & Great Britain & England & Bridge)  ibid.   

 

53,576.  In 1709 Abraham Darby got a patent for a new method of casting pot-bellied cooking pots ... in sand.  In 1709 he moved from Bristol to here.  And also in 1709 he did an amazing thing: because he discovered a way of smelting iron with coke ... He truly was the Father of the Industrial Revolution.  (Iron & Industrial Revolution & Great Britain & England)  ibid.  

 

 

47,849.  Wrought iron made for much stronger lighter rails.  (Railways & Trains & Steam & Iron & Mines & Industrial Revolution & Great Britain & England & Engineering)  Mark Williams on the Rails – Rocketmen

 

 

53,577.  Iron turned Sweden into one of the almighty nations in Europe.  But it owes its strength to one man: Christopher Polhem, whose genius forged its power.  1620: and the survival of Sweden depended on its ability to produce high quality iron ... Through a quirk of geology it sat on one of the richest iron-ore deposits in the world.  (Iron & Industrial Revolution & Sweden)  Ronald Top, Industrial Revelations: The European Story: Iron Man of Sweden e9

 

53,578.  To produce sixty tons of iron you need a hundred and twenty tons of charcoal.  Now, to produce a hundred and twenty tons of charcoal you need to slowly burn twelve hundred tons of wood.  (Iron & Industrial Revolution & Sweden)  ibid.

 

53,579.  Swedish iron is free of impurities such as sulphur and phosphorus so it is very strong.  (Iron & Industrial Revolution & Sweden)  ibid.

 

 

53,580.  This extraordinary metal, the soul of every manufacture, and the mainspring perhaps of civilised society.  (Iron & Manufacture & Industrial Revolution)  Samuel Smiles, Men of Invention and Industry 1884

 

 

53,581.  Any old iron, any old iron,

Any any old old iron?  Charles Collins, Any Old Iron 1911  

 

 

53,582.  So what makes iron so special?  It stems from the unique structure of its nucleus.  The twenty-six protons along with the neutrons combine in a very special way to make iron incredibly stable.  For some reason Nature has decreed this as the number that allows the strong force and the electro-magnetic force to balance each other perfectly.   Professor Jim Al-Khalili, Atom: The Key to the Cosmos

 

 

53,583.  Iron is a very special atom.  The protons and neutrons inside its nucleus are very tightly bound together.  So that even the extreme temperatures inside stars couldn’t get it to fuse into heavier elements ... Forming these missing pieces would take some of the most powerful explosions the universe has ever seen.  (Iron & Element)  Birth of the Universe

 

 

61,536.  A pitiless age - the Age of Iron ... Civilisation would re-emerge, tempered in the flames of conflict, tougher and more resilient than ever before.  (Civilisation & Iron)  Richard Miles, Ancient Worlds II: Age of Iron

 

61,537.  The Mycenaeans ... had learnt the arts of civilisation from the Minoans.  (Civilisation & Iron & Greece & Mycenae)  ibid.

 

61,538.  The catastrophe of the sea peoples is one of the break points of our story.  (Civilisation & Iron & Greece & Mycenae)  ibid.

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