Richard Dawkins TV - Karl Lansteiner 1902 - Niels K Jerne - Linus Pauli - Cesar Milstein - Congressional Record 1969 - Edward Jenner - Michael Mosley TV - Genius of Britain TV -
2,557. ‘Edward Jenner was a country doctor ... Jenner was interested in everything.’ (Science & Doctor & Immunology & Great Britain) Genius of Britain II: A Roomful of Brilliant Minds, Channel 4 2012, Richard Dawkins
2,558. Edward Jenner took on the number one killer in the eighteenth century: Smallpox. (Science & Doctor & Immunology & Great Britain) ibid.
2,559. Jenner had demonstrated the possibility of vaccination. (Science & Doctor & Immunology & Vaccination & Great Britain) ibid.
2,560. Jenner is rightly regarded as the father of immunology. (Science & Doctor & Immunology & Great Britain) ibid.
77,027. A single kind of red cell is supposed to have an enormous number of different substances on it, and in the same way there are substances in the serum to react with many different animal cells. In addition, the substances which match each kind of cell are different in each kind of serum. The number of hypothetical different substances postulated makes this conception so uneconomical that the question must be asked whether it is the only one possible ... We ourselves hold that another, simpler, explanation is possible. Karl Landsteiner 1902
77,028. According to the older view, for every single effect of a serum, there was a separate substance, or at least a particular chemical group ... A normal serum contained as many different haemagglutinins as it agglutinated different cells. The situation was undoubtedly made much simpler if, to use the Ehrlich terminology ... the separate haptophore groups can combine with an extremely large number of receptors in stepwise differing quantities as a stain does with different animal tissues, though not always with the same intensity. A normal serum would therefore visibly affect such a large number of different blood cells ... not because it contained countless special substances, but because of the colloids of the serum, and therefore of the agglutinins by reason of their chemical constitution and the electrochemical properties resulting from it. That this manner of representation is a considerable simplification is clear; it also opens the way to direct experimental testing by the methods of structural chemistry. Karl Landsteiner
77,029. An immune system of enormous complexity is present in all vertebrate animals. When we place a population of lymphocytes from such an animal in appropriate tissue culture fluid, and when we add an antigen, the lymphocytes will produce specific antibody molecules, in the absence of any nerve cells. I find it astonishing that the immune system embodies a degree of complexity which suggests some more or less superficial though striking analogies with human language, and that this cognitive system has evolved and functions without assistance of the brain. Niels K Jerne, Nobel lecture 1984
77,030. During the time that [Karl] Landsteiner gave me an education in the field of immunology, I discovered that he and I were thinking about the serologic problem in very different ways. He would ask, What do these experiments force us to believe about the nature of the world? I would ask, What is the most. simple and general picture of the world that we can formulate that is not ruled by these experiments? I realized that medical and biological investigators were not attacking their problems the same way that theoretical physicists do, the way I had been in the habit of doing. Linus Pauli
77,031. What attracted me to immunology was that the whole thing seemed to revolve around a very simple experiment: take two different antibody molecules and compare their primary sequences. The secret of antibody diversity would emerge from that. Fortunately at the time I was sufficiently ignorant of the subject not to realise how naive I was being. César Milstein, Nobel lecture 1984
65,289. Within the next five to ten years it would probably be possible to make a new infective micro-organism which could differ in certain important aspects from any known disease-causing organisms. Most important of these is that it might be refractory to the immunological and therapeutic processes upon which we depend to maintain our relative freedom from infectious disease ... It is highly controversial and there are many who believe such research should not be undertaken. (Bio-Chemical Weapons & Disease & Immunology) Congressional Record 1969, Department of Defense Appropriations for 1970
88,642. But what renders the Cow Pox virus so extremely singular, is that the person who has been thus affected is for ever after secure from the infection of the Small Pox. (Smallpox & Immunology) Edward Jenner, 1798
88,644. I hope that some day the practice of producing cowpox in human beings will spread over the world – when that day comes, there will be no more smallpox. (Smallpox & Immunology) Edward Jenner
89,523. So how did we all end up with such different immune systems? (Pregnancy & Birth & Life & Immunity) Michael Mosley, Countdown to Life: The Extraordinary Making of You II
112,034. Edward Jenner was interested in everthing … His most important experiment: Edward Jenner took on the Number One killer of the nineteenth century: Smallpox … Rightly regarded as the father of immunology. (Science & Body & Immunology & Biology) Genius of Britain V, Channel 4 2010