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England: Early – 1455 (II)
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★ England: Early – 1455 (II)

England: Early English History – 1455 (II): see & England: Early History to 1455 (I) & England & England: 1456 –1899 & England: 1900 to Date & Great Britain & United Kingdom & Scotland & Wales & Ireland & Northern Ireland & English Civil Wars & Anglo-Saxons & Roman Empire & Vikings & Normans & Europe & Dark Ages & Middle Ages & Netherlands & War

David Starkey TV - Magna Carta Revealed: People vs The Crown TV - Warrior Queen Boudica TV -

 

 

112,744.  To many people today monarchy seems to be merely a corrosive mixture of snobbery, ceremony and sentiment.  But it’s far more than that.  It’s the natural, universal form of government … We still have our real monarchy.  It’s over 1,500 years old which means it is the oldest functioning political institution in Europe.  (Monarchy & England)  Monarchy by David Starkey s1e1: A Nation State, Channel 4 2004

 

112,745.  Rome brought Britain a civilisation, an extraordinary sophistication and refinement … The emperor: he was a god on Earth.  (Monarchy & England & Romans)  ibid.

 

112,746.  The scale of the Saxon incursions: perhaps 200,000 people flooded into a native population of only about 2,000,000.  (Monarchy & England & Medieval & Anglo-Saxons)  ibid.

 

112,747.  Bede’s history told us that Readwald ruled in East Anglia as one of several leaders in the new England.  (Monarchy & England & Medieval & Anglo-Saxons)  ibid.

 

 

112,748.  The life of the typical Anglo-Saxon king remained nasty, brutish and short.  (Monarchy & England & Medieval & Anglo-Saxons)  ibid.  

 

112,749.  One of the forgotten heroes of English history, a man who operated on a European scale and dominated the England of his day.  His name is Offa, king of Mercia.  (Monarchy & England & Medieval & Anglo-Saxons)  ibid.

 

112,750.  Guthrum knew that for his takeover of the kingdom of Wessex to succeed he had to kill Alfred.  (Monarchy & England & Medieval & Anglo-Saxons)  ibid.  

 

 

112,763.  991: A menacing fleet approached the coast at East Anglia.  Nearly a century after King Alfred’s victory over the Vikings the Norse men were back.  (Monarchy & England & Anglo-Saxons & Middle Ages)  Monarchy by David Starkey s1e2: Aengla Land

 

112,764.  On the landward side there were the forces of the most sophisticated monarchy in western Europe … It was England’s wealth and stability that had enabled Edgar to establish the first British empire.  (Monarchy & England & Anglo-Saxons & Middle Ages)  ibid.

 

112,765.  English art and literature flourished.  (Monarchy & England & Anglo-Saxons & Middle Ages)  ibid.

 

112,766.  One of the worst kings ever to wear the crown – his name is Aethelred.  (Monarchy & England & Anglo-Saxons & Middle Ages)  ibid.

 

112,767.  The English defeat at Maldon was just the beginning; for the next ten years it seemed that nothing would stop the Danes.  (Monarchy & England & Anglo-Saxons & Middle Ages)  ibid.  

 

112,768.  In England Canute went native and became more English than the English.  (Monarchy & England & Anglo-Saxons & Middle Ages)  ibid.

 

 

112,769.  The Norman Conquest was a defining, arguably the defining event, in English history … It’s left its mark on us right up to the present.  (Monarchy & England & Normans & Middle Ages)  Monarchy by David Starkey s1e3: Conquest

 

112,770.  The Norman army sliced through southern England … Submit or die.  Within weeks William’s victory was complete.  (Monarchy & England & Normans & Middle Ages)  ibid.

 

112,771.  He [William] marched his army to York, drove off the Danes and then perpetrated the most infamous event of his reign: the harrying of the north.  (Monarchy & England & Normans & Middle Ages)  ibid.

 

112,772.  William’s violence rule also left a stench in the nostrils of his people. (Monarchy & England & Normans & Middle Ages)  ibid.

 

112,773.  William Rufus was a highly competent king … but he added nothing more.  (Monarchy & England & Normans & Middle Ages)  ibid.

 

112,774.  If any women could pull off that challenge it was Matilda.  (Monarchy & England & Normans & Middle Ages)  ibid.  

 

112,775.  Within a year or two he [Stephen] had lost control of the barons.  (Monarchy & England & Normans & Stephen & Middle Ages)  ibid.

 

112,776.  Matilda v Stephen: Norman England’s first civil war was about to begin.  (Monarchy & English Civil Wars & England & Stephen & Middle Ages)  ibid.

 

 

112,777.  In December 1154 one of the most charismatic of all kings of England began his reign: Henry II was a star amongst monarchs.  (Monarchy & England & Henry II & Middle Ages)  Monarchy by David Starkey s1e4: Dynasty

 

112,778.  Why the transformation in Becket?  (Monarchy & England & Henry II & Middle Ages)  ibid.

 

112,779.  Henry king of England submitted to a public scourging.  (Monarchy & England & Henry II & Middle Ages)  ibid.

 

112,780.  He was defeated in battle by Richard and the king of France.  (Monarchy & England & Henry II & Richard I & Middle Ages)  ibid.

 

112,781.  Richard ruled the family empire for almost ten years until he was mortally wounded in a siege here in France.  But during all that time Richard spent only six months in England.  (Monarchy & England & Richard I & Middle Ages)  ibid.

 

112,782.  But to praise John for being a royal filing clerk … a sign not of strength but of weakness.  (Monarchy & England & John & Middle Ages)  ibid.

 

112,783.  The barons who had come fully armed presented their demands and King John, reluctantly and all ready in bad faith, granted what they wished.  The agreement became known as Magna Carta.  (Monarchy & England & John & Middle Ages)  ibid. 

 

 

112,803.  This castle was built by a man whose ambitions were truly imperials: King Edward I, conqueror of Wales and hammer of the Scots.  (Monarchy & England & Edward I & Wales & Middle Ages)  Monarchy by David Starkey s1e5: A United Kingdom 

 

112,804.  But the second Edward, unconventional and self-indulgent, reopened the old debate about royal power; his weaknesses brought the monarchy to the brink of disaster and may have inflicted a uniquely horrible death on the king.  Nor was it all gore and glory.  (Monarchy & England & Edward I & Edward II & Middle Ages)  ibid.  

 

112,805.  By the end of the Edwardian century the shape of an England ruled by king, lords and commons was already becoming clear.  (Monarchy & England & Middle Ages)  ibid.

 

112,806.  Wales was crushed under the heel of a brutal military occupation.  (Monarchy & England & Edward I & Middle Ages)  ibid.

 

112,807.  Bannockburn became infamous as England’s most shameful defeat by the Scots … Edward fled the battlefield.  (Monarchy & England & Edward II & Middle Ages)  ibid.

 

112,808.  For the first time in England history a reigning monarch was formally deposed from the throne.  (Monarchy & England & Edward II & Middle Ages & Coup)  ibid.

 

112,809.  Edward [III] was the perfect gentleman … This was a quiet revolution.  (Monarchy & England & Edward III & Middle Ages)  ibid.

 

112,810.  War with France offered the chance of rich booty … He was about to start a war that would last a hundred years.  (Monarchy & England & Edward III & Middle Ages)  ibid.  

 

 

112,811.  Over the next hundred years there were seven kinds and only three of them died in the beds.  (Monarchy & England & Middle Ages)  Monarchy by David Starkey s1e6: Death of a Dynasty  

 

112,812.  Hope for the future lay with Edward’s eldest son and heir, the Black Prince but then in 1376 disaster struck: aged 45 he died.  In his place his son, the nine year old Richard, became heir to the throne … Richard aged only ten became king [Richard II].  (Monarchy & England & Richard II & Middle Ages)  ibid.

 

112,813.  In 1380 they introduced a new poll tax; not for the last time it triggered a revolt.  (Monarchy & England & Richard II & Poll Tax & Middle Ages)  ibid.  

 

112,814.  One by one those Lords who had rebelled against him met with his revenge.  (Monarchy & England & Richard II & Middle Ages)  ibid.

 

112,815.  Henry [Bolingbroke] wanted far more than the Duchy of Lancaster: he would settle for nothing less than the crown of England itself.  (Monarchy & England & Richard II & Henry IV & Middle Ages)  ibid.   

 

112,816.  Only a year after Henry’s coronation in 1400 the Welsh rose up against England rule, but the greatest threat to England came from within England and from the family which had been his own strongest supporters –  the Percys.  (Monarchy & England & Henry IV & Middle Ages)  ibid.

 

112,817.  No heir to the throne had served a more distinguished apprenticeship … He fought bravely against Hotspur … the led the English to victory … but suddenly at the age of 35 Henry caught dysentery and died.  (Monarchy & England & Henry V & Middle Ages)  ibid. 

 

112,818.  Everything would depend on Henry’s son – the nine month old … Henry [VI] was also named king of France … The government of England and France was divided between the king’s two uncles … French resistance couldn’t be suppressed.  (Monarchy & England & Henry VI & Middle Ages)  ibid.

 

112,819.  By the time Henry was 30 he’d lost everything his father had won.  Only Calais remained in English hands.  (Monarchy & England & Henry VI & Middle Ages)  ibid.  

 

112,820.  Now York turned the tables on the house of Lancaster … Henry would remain king whilst he lived and York would succeed only after his death, but everybody reckoned without queen Margaret’s ferocious mother-love … She led her forces against York; Margaret was victorious.  (Monarchy & England & Henry VI & Middle Ages)  ibid.

 

112,821.  He seized the throne and ruled as King Edward IV; Henry was captured … But then his own followers started to quarrel … A total and final defeat for the house of Lancaster … Henry VI was dispatched with a blow of the head.  (Monarchy & England & Henry VI & Edward IV & Middle Ages)  ibid.  

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