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5,608. If we find Life on Europa, separate from Earth, no common origin, that would tell you that Life is probably abundant in every solar system in the galaxy. That would be a day in the history of scientific discovery whose consequences we might not be able to foresee or imagine. (Life & Europa) Professor Neil deGrasse Tyson
71,587. At the start of a new millennium we’re about to embark on the greatest adventure of all time. 500,000,000 miles from Earth a spacecraft will land of Jupiter’s icy moon Europa. Its mission: to search for alien life. (Europa & Life & Extremophiles & Universe) Universe: Life
71,588. The microbes of Europa would have to be far tougher than their arctic counterparts. They’d have to survive lethal doses of radiation generated by Jupiter’s powerful magnetism. (Europa & Life & Extremophiles & Universe) ibid.
8,453. Scientists dedicated to the search for extraterrestrial life are keenly focused on Europa. (Aliens & Life & Extraterrestrials & Europa & Universe) The Universe s1e13: Search For ET, History 2007
8,454. Tidal heating – and it may create enough heat to keep H2O miles below the surface of Europa in liquid form. (Alien & Life & Extraterrestrial & Europa) ibid.
71,589. But there’s another moon orbiting Jupiter which may not only support human exploration but possibly supports its own life-forms. Europa orbits 400,000 miles from Jupiter’s surface. (Europa & Life) The Universe s2e5: Alien Moons
71,590. This water is rising from an underground ocean and leaking out on to the surface of Europe. ibid.
71,591. In February of 2007 the new Horizon space-craft on its way to Pluto and the outer reaches of the solar system managed to fly close enough to Europa and send back some startling pictures. ibid.
71,592. Evidence suggests liquid water was seen underneath its frozen crust. Scientists think Europa has an ocean more than fifty miles deep. There are also signs of volcanic activity. So Europa’s icy water could be warmed to a liquid state by volcanic vents on the ocean floor, and this volcanic activity would help cook up the chemicals necessary for life. (Europa & Life) The Universe s2e7: Astrobiology
71,581. The reason that it is of such great interest is the fact that for sure it has water. Dr Bill Stone, Stone Aerospace
71,582. The Europa mission is probably the greatest technological challenge that mankind has ever undertaken. To break it down in pieces, the master-lander comes down from the mother-ship; it lands on the surface of Europa in a flat area that’s safe – not in an area where you have cracks or anything; you have the second stage of the lander that melts its way through three kilometres of ice. Dr Bill Stone
71,583. The wonders of Europa which were recorded for the first time in human history today is absolutely astonishing ... We see an amazing intricate network of criss-crossing, straight and curved lines. Professor Carl Sagan & Ann Druyan, Cosmos: Travellers’ Tales, 1979
71,584. Europa may hold our solar system’s biggest surprise: life. Not on its surface but sixty miles beneath. (Europa & Life) Solar Empire: Edge of Darkness, 1997
71,585. Europa is the fourth largest moon in the Jupiter system and orbits just beyond Io. The exact opposite of that volcanic moon, Europa’s surface temperatures dive two hundred and fifty degrees below freezing. The lunar surface is granite-hard ice makes it seem no more than a barren snowball in space. Are We Alone? National Geographic 2009
71,586. In 2000 Galileo scanned the frozen moon and confirmed that underneath its icy surface was an electrically charged layer, an enormous conduit for electromagnetic interaction. This charged layer could only be salty water. This was confirmation of a vast reservoir deep inside the moon. ibid.
71,593. These tidal forces heat up the moon’s core. Enough to keep the ocean around it liquid. Eventually, NASA hope to probe further in Europa’s mysteries. Alien Contact Investigated
71,594. A small mysterious moon that orbits the giant planet Jupiter. This is Europa. Europa is tiny. Just under 2,000 miles in diameter. And it’s very cold – minus 260°. The entire moon is covered in a layer of ice perhaps 15 miles thick. But Europa may have a hidden heat source beneath the surface. Stephen Hawking’s Universe: Into the Universe: Aliens: Are We Alone? BBC 1997
71,595. Its surface is made of an unbroken shell of ice, though it’s etched with a network of mysterious red markings. Brian Cox, Wonders of the Solar System: Aliens, BBC 2010
71,596. Europa is the size of Earth’s moon. A frozen ocean slightly deeper than the Earth’s surrounds a large rocky core ... It’s surface is covered with cracks. Horizon: Encounter With Jupiter, BBC 1980
71,597. Europa which is smaller has almost no impact craters at all. This is the frozen surface of an ocean of muddy water ... It’s possible that there may still be water underneath this ice. Horizon: Earth to Miranda, BBC 1990
71,598. It was the first time scientists had found compelling evidence for liquid water outside our own planet. Liquid water is the single most important requisite for life. So finding an ocean on Europa presented NASA with the extraordinary possibility that Europa could be home to extraterrestrial life. This is what NASA had always dreamt of. But exploring this alien world in search of life seemed an impossible task. NASA had worked out that the ice on Europa is many kilometres thick. And developing clean technology to penetrate it would pose a completely new challenge. And then they heard about Lake Vostok. (Europa & Life) Horizon: The Lost World of Lake Vostok, BBC 2000
71,599. But break through the ice and there may be the first ocean found off planet Earth ... Here Jupiter rains a vicious hail of radiation that cooks the living like a microwave ... The pull of Jupiter’s gravity is stretching and squeezing the inside of this moon, creating enough heat to melt underground ice. 95 Worlds and Counting, 2000
71,600. Europa sits well outside the Goldilocks Zone. But just like at the bottom of Earth’s oceans hydrothermic vents could be the energy source needed for life to emerge. Those ocean depths could be home to some bizarre life-forms, huge tube-worms feeding on the minerals coming from inside Europa’s core. There’s no telling what kind of life exists in Europa’s oceans. (Europa & Life & Universe) Extreme Universe: Is Anyone Out There? National Geographic 2010
71,601. The moon is constantly stretched and compressed as it orbits the gas giant. And like a paper-clip flexed back and forward heat is generated in Europa’s rocky core. That internal heat is now believed to support a giant ocean beneath Europa’s ice. Hunt For Aliens, 2010
71,602. But underneath all the ice there may be an ocean of water heated by the same tidal friction that makes Io volcanic. One day we’ll send a probe to explore beneath the ice of Europa and maybe we’ll discover life there. (Europa & Life) How the Universe Works: Moons, Discovery 2010
71,603. Beneath that ice we have very good reason to believe that there is a vast, global liquid water ocean. Europa has two to three times all the liquid volume of water here on Earth. Dr Kevin Hand, astrobiology NASA/JPL
71,576. Europa: a tiny moon of Jupiter. An icy world that’s a prime target in the search for alien life. If we find life on Europa, then life may be abundant in every solar system in the galaxy. But to look for that life we’ll need to ... explore an ocean nearly sixty miles deep ... Can we really send a craft to Europa? (Life & Europa) Jupiter’s Alien Moon
71,577. If we want to find Life in our solar system, our best chance may be to look on the tiny moon of Europa. (Life & Europa) ibid.
71,578. Every place we’ve found water on Earth there has been some life. (Life & Europa) ibid.
71,579. There was evidence that these vents might exist, but no-one imagined this! Life abundant, thriving, alien. Oasis in a barren, frigid world completely devoid of sunlight. (Life & Europa) ibid.
71,580. Could Europa’s ruddy complexion be the remnants of dead microbes brought up from the ocean below? (Life & Europa) ibid.