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Isabella ... was a peace-making Queen. Dr Helen Castor, She Wolves: England’s Early Queens Isabella and Margaret, BBC 2012
It was Isabella herself who precipitated the country into civil war. ibid.
Edward ordered that all French men and women living in England should be arrested as enemy aliens. ibid.
Isabella, Mortimer and Prince Edward set sail for England. ibid.
She was greeted with open arms. ibid.
Her husband’s power simply melted away. ibid.
She, a Queen, had seized power to depose a crowned and anointed King for the first time in English history. ibid.
But John wanted more money: he was determined to fund an army to win back his Plantagenet birthright. Professor Robert Bartlett, The Plantagenets I, BBC 2014
Once again the Plantagenets plunged England into Civil War. ibid.
DeMontford saw himself as England’s saviour ... DeMontford raised an army against the King. Professor Robert Bartlett, The Plantagenets II
DeMontford’s parliament of 1265 is often regarded as the forerunner of the modern parliament. ibid.
In 1264 England is plunged into a civil war. Dan Jones, Britain’s Bloodiest Dynasty s1e2: Hatred, Channel 5 2014
Nearly six hundred years ago England was torn apart by a series of bloody battles for the Throne. In just thirty years the Crown changed hands seven times. Tens of thousands were slaughtered. It was one of the most turbulent and violent periods in British history: it’s known as the Wars of the Roses. Dan Jones, Britain’s Bloody Crown I, Channel 5 2016
Henry [VI] gave another of his cousins the job of managing England for him – Lord Somerset. ibid.
York’s absolutely certain that he should be in charge; Margaret’s absolutely certain she should be in charge … York storms out of London and begins to gather troops. ibid.
Richard Duke of York has come to London expecting to be made Lord Protector of England. He has accused the Queen’s man Somerset of treason and demanded to take his place in charge of England. ibid.
Henry VI has woken after a year in a catatonic stupor. Queen Margaret’s ally Somerset is immediately released from the Tower. It’s a disaster for the Duke of York. ibid.
Margaret’s troops march north … Margaret outnumbers York two to one … She brings the King along for legitimacy. ibid.
Less than a year later, his great ally Warwick attacks the royal army at Northampton. Queen Margaret escapes … York has made his decision – he’s going to take the Crown … They take the Queen’s revenge. ibid.
1461: Britain’s weakest King, Henry VI, is barely clinging to power. Richard Duke of York has been killed trying to snatch the Throne from him. Three months later, York’s son Edward takes his revenge on the King. Dan Jones, Britain’s Bloody Crown II
In May 1465 Elizabeth Woodville is crowned Queen of England. All the great Nobles attend except one. The Earl of Warwick. The Kingmaker. It’s a direct snub to the King and his new Queen. ibid.
Redesdale demands the Queen’s family, the Woodvilles, are removed from power. King Edward heads north to crush him. ibid.
After ten years in captivity, Edward releases Henry VI from the Tower. ibid.
The most infamous story in the entire blood-soaked era happens twenty years after the Wars of the Roses begin – the slaying of two innocent young boys – the Princes in the Tower. Dan Jones, Britain’s Bloody Crown III: The Princes Must Die
9Richard, Duke of Gloucester, plans to become Protector of England and take control of the young King, Edward V. He claimed he wanted to work with the King’s guardian, Earl Rivers. Instead, Richard arrests Rivers for treason. ibid.
With his main opponents dead or neutralised the Throne is Richard’s for the taking. ibid.
Henry VI is back on the Throne of England. It’s not going well. In March 1471 Edward IV lands in Yorkshire claiming that he only wants his Dukedom returned. ibid.
Henry died … Edward has had him killed. ibid.
Henry Tudor, a minor noble and rank outsider, beats the infamous Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth and becomes Henry VII, the first Tudor king. Dan Jones, Britain’s Bloody Crown IV
Margaret Beaufort’s story spans the whole of the Wars of the Roses. She works in the shadows through three decades of turmoil to protect her only child … This woman ends the conflict. ibid.
The Civil War had created a new climate: the first time in their history the English could openly express ideas about tolerance. Professor Diarmaid MacCulloch, How God Made The English II: A Tolerant People? BBC 2012
The Glorious Revolution: James II fled abroad. ibid.
The edges of Charles’ Great Britain were burning. Michael Wood, The Great British Story VI: A People’s History 6/8: The Age of Revolution, BBC 2012
The war would split regions, neighbours and even families. ibid.
These were British civil wars. ibid.
There were war crimes ... How far would the revolution go? ibid.
On the streets of Dublin, Cromwell is still a swear-word. ibid.
The competing wings of the Plantagenet family: for thirty years the Houses of York and Lancaster slogged it out in a roll call of battles we know as the Wars of the Roses. Simon Schama, A History of Britain: King Death, BBC 2000
Cromwell stepped up his assault on the old religion ... crushing the cult of saints and shrines. Simon Schama, A History of Britain: Burning Convictions
Here at Edgehill, Eden had become Golgotha. Over the next long years the nations that both James and Charles yearned to bring together would tear each other apart in murderous civil wars. Hundreds of thousands of lives would be lost in battles, sieges, epidemics, famine. Simon Sharma, A History of Britain: The British Wars
What’s truly amazing and very touching about the Spring and Summer of 1642 is the abundance of evidence we have about the agonies of allegiance. ibid.
The war was over and Parliament had won. So finally God had spoken. Surely even Charles could see that. ibid.
On January 30th 1649 the English killed their King. Simon Schama, A History of Britain: Revolutions
The poet John Milton, an ardent champion of the parliamentary commonwealth, was hired to attack the cult of the King-martyr as so much wicked idolatry. ibid.
For the Scots had invited the 20-year-old Charles II to come and be their King, and went to war on his behalf. ibid.
What kind of a republic was it supposed to be? ibid.
To Cromwell the Rump was a monstrosity. A bastion of selfishness and greed. More like Sodom than Jerusalem. ibid.
He chose to become Lord Protector – that had a good ring: authority but not tyranny. ibid.
Events moved so quickly that few predicted the outcome. It began with the protests of the Puritans – extreme Protestants who set themselves against the luxury of the court. David Dimbleby, Seven Ages of Britain, Age of Revolution, BBC 2010
It all came to a head in the winter of 1642. ibid.
Cromwell’s New Model Army will eventually defeat the forces of the King. The British III: Revolution, Sky Atlantic 2012
They plucked communion tables down
And broke our painted glasses;
They threw our altars to the ground
And tumbled down the crosses.
They set up Cromwell and his heir –
The Lord and Lady Claypole –
Because they hated common prayer
The organ and the maypole. Thomas Jordan, How the War Began, 1664