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Some recent work by E Fermi and L Szilard, which has been communicated to me in manuscript, leads me to expect that the element uranium may be turned into a new and important source of energy in the immediate future. Certain aspects of the situation which has arisen seem to call for watchfulness and, if necessary, quick action on the part of the Administration. Albert Einstein, letter to Franklin Roosevelt 1939
The release of atomic energy has not created a new problem. It has merely made more urgent the necessity of solving an existing one. Albert Einstein
At around a million billion degrees the electromagnetic and the weak force begin to merge. This merging is called electro-weak-unification. Through the Wormhole with Morgan Freeman: What Are We Really Made Of? Science 2010
Hawking had taken the idea to its logical conclusion: for every ounce of material a black hole absorbs into its core, it would radiate away the equivalent amount of energy from its event horizon. Through the Wormhole with Morgan Freeman: The Riddle of Black Holes
Space and Energy were spontaneously created in an event we now call The Big Bang. Stephen Hawking, Did God Create the Universe? Discovery 2012
So where is all this negative energy today? ... It’s in space. ibid.
About fifteen billion years ago there were no stars in the sky; there wasn’t even any sky. All that existed was the primordial fireball. That fireball of energy condensed into the building blocks of matter at the birth of our universe. Horizon: The Hunting of the Quark, BBC 1974
Einstein’s equation showed what was powering the Sun. In the Sun’s core, mass was continually being converted to energy. A process that can be sustained for billions of years. Horizon: Einstein’s Equation of Life and Death, BBC 2005
Eddington suggested that the sun shines by combining hydrogen into helium, releasing the missing mass as energy. Horizon: Can We Make a Star on Earth? BBC 2009
The Big Bang: the most violent explosion there has ever been brought everything into existence. This early universe was hot – so hot it contained only raging energy. After just one second some energy was transformed into the seeds of matter, and the universe filled with a dense fog. 400,000 years passed as the universe grew, and eventually the fog settled to form atoms. Horizon: Is Everything We Know About the Universe Wrong? BBC 2010
As things get colder, they also get stranger ... It’s like a different world ... Everything is in a low energy state. Horizon: What is One Degree? Ben Miller reporting, BBC 2011
As the helium atoms turn into a super-fluid at that critical temperature their fundamental nature asserts itself. Instead of individual atoms bouncing around, the atoms move together as if they were of one mind. ibid.
As a super-fluid the liquid helium has no viscosity. ibid.
I’ve gone through the rabbit hole ... As temperature decreases, as we get closer and closer to absolute zero, we pass into a completely new world, the quantum world, and it’s baffling, and it’s weird. Temperature – the random thermal motion of molecules. ibid.
A rush for energy in America – for a type of gas that appears cheap and plentiful. One with just one way of getting it out of the ground – hydraulic frackturing, or fracking. Horizon: Fracking – The New Energy Rush, BBC 2013
For some the great hope of the future – shale gas. It doesn’t come out easily. ibid.
You need to pump water under very high pressure deep underground – that fractures the bedrock. ibid.
The pipes, the lorries, the rigs, blights rural communities. ibid.
Fracking is starting to change the politics and economics of this nation. ibid.
The demand for energy consumption to increase … how do we keep the lights on? … Renewable energy is here to stay. Horizon: Ten Things You Need to Know About the Future, BBC 2017
When did the clocks start ticking? Twelve billion years ago there was absolutely nothing: no matter, no space, no time. We may never know how or why it happened, but a seething mass of energy smaller than an atom grew from nothing ... A giant fireball of unimaginable heat. Universe: Big Bang
The same nuclear reactions that take place in a hydrogen bomb – converting hydrogen into helium – produces the energy that causes stars to shine. Universe: Stars
Energy: the ultimate galactic transporter forever morphing from one form to another. It powers our planet and everything else in the universe. But what exactly is it? Where did it all come from? And how do we get more? The Universe s4e12: Extreme Energy, History 2009
It can only be transformed from one type to another. ibid.
A helium atom weighs a little bit less than four hydrogen atoms. And if you use Einstein’s good old formula E = MC² that means you get a whole lot of energy for just that little bit of mass. Professor Harold Zirin
The Sun shines by nuclear fusion: the fusion of four hydrogens into one helium. First one hydrogen fuses to another, then another, then a fourth. Helium weighs less than the four hydrogens that went into making it. What you get out is less than what you put in. That mass difference is energy that powers the Sun. Ken Lang, author
On Earth we’re actually only receiving about one two-billionth of the energy that’s being produced by the Sun. Holly Gilbert, NASA/Goddard Space Centre
Energy is conserved … energy is eternal. Brian Cox, Wonders of Life I: What is Life? BBC 2013
The energy itself becomes less and less useful – it becomes ever more disordered. ibid.
Energy had become the central concept in science. Jacob Bronowski, The Ascent of Man 8/13: The Drive For Power, BBC 1973
Energy must also come in lumps or quanta as well. Jacob Bronowski, The Ascent of Man 10/13: World Within World
There was a time when energy was a dirty word … That was the past. Where are we now? Moon 2009 starring Sam Rockwell & Kevin Spacey & Robin Chalk & Dominique McElligott & Kaya Scodelario & Benedit Wong & Matt Berry & Malcolm Stewart et al, director Duncan Jones, opening commentary
What you see is American military hegemony covering 90% of the globe’s energy resources. Lt Col Karen Kwiatkowski
Enron ... Bush takes office: just three days later he signs an executive order that raises the price of electricity in California. Greg Palast, Bush Family Fortunes
Bush forms a secret task force including Enron’s Ken Lay to re-write American energy and environmental laws. ibid.
Who was responsible for the downfall of Enron? Only a few years ago Enron was the nation’s seventh largest corporation. Enron: The Smartest Guys in the Room, written McLean & Elkind & Gibney, 2005
Ken Lay and Jeff Skilling had built their own plush state rooms. They were known as the smartest guys in the room. Captains of a ship too powerful to go down. ibid.
News of shredding at Enron raised more questions. ibid.
20,000 employees had lost their jobs. ibid.
In Washington, Lay became part of a new crusade to liberate businessmen from the rules and regulations of government. ibid.
George Bush senior helped secure billions in government subsidies for Enron International. ibid.
In 1987 two oil traders made bets for Enron on whether the price of oil would rise or fall ... Enron Oil always seemed to win. ibid.