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The disappearance of the two sons of Edward IV, successors to his throne, is the most infamous unsolved mystery in British royal history. Since his death, King Richard III has been accused of their murders and vilified by the monarchs who succeeded him. Even William Shakespeare immortalises Richard as a deformed usurper seizing the Crown of England amidst an ocean of blood included that of his nephews. But modern historians confess that this portrayal is riddled with inaccuracies. Mystery Files s1e4: Princes in the Tower, National Geographic 2010
Once Richard has taken the throne, in a strictly legal sense the Princes in the Tower are no longer a threat to him, because as bastards they have become irrelevant to the succession. Dr Michael K Jones, author Bosworth 1485: Psychology of a Battle
What I’ve got here is an annals written by we think a London merchant, a London citizen ... Under 1482-3 which it says: ‘This year King Edward IV’s sons were put to death in the Tower of London by the vice of the Duke of Buckingham’. Peter O’Donoghue, The Royal College of Arms
He seized the throne and ruled as King Edward IV; Henry was captured … But then his own followers started to quarrel … A total and final defeat for the house of Lancaster … Henry VI was dispatched with a blow of the head. Monarchy by David Starkey s1e6: Death of a Dynasty, Channel 4 2004
By the mid-1470s Elizabeth had presented Edward [IV] with five daughters and crucially two sons. Monarchy by David Starkey s2e1: The Crown Imperial, Channel 4 2005
1471: A new England is being forged in the fire of civil war. Philippa Gregory, The Real White Queen and Her Rivals II, BBC 2013
They are the founders of our nation just as much as their more-famous men. ibid.
‘She [Margaret] plays the game of divided loyalties very effectively: she’s protected by her Yorkish husbands and is at the same time covertly working for her Lancastrian son. But King Edward’s victory was a disaster for her. Forcing her son Henry Tudor to flee into exile in France.’ ibid. Lisa Hilton
The York dynasty had an extraordinary capacity for self-destruction. And its downfall would begin with Anne Neville. ibid.
It looks as though Elizabeth had no option but to release her child into the hands of her enemies … I think she handed over a servant boy muffled up in a scarf. ibid.
The two boys in the tower were never seen again. ibid.
July 6th 1483 in Westminster Abbey Richard had himself crowned king of England. At his side his wife Anne. Queen at last. ibid.
They were all using each other. ibid.
If Richard didn’t kill them, then who did? The other person with a clear motive was Elizabeth Beaufort. ibid.
The rumours were truly scandalous: that Richard was courting his niece the princess under the very nose of his wife. ibid.
Elizabeth Woodville gave her daughter in marriage to the family that may have killed her sons. ibid.
It was Margaret Beaufort who shaped the Tudor dynasty. ibid.
Nearly six hundred years ago England was torn apart by a series of bloody battles for the throne. In just thirty years the Crown changed hands seven times. Tens of thousands were slaughtered. It was one of the most turbulent and violent periods in British history: it’s known as the Wars of the Roses. Dan Jones, Britain’s Bloody Crown I, Channel 5 2016
… Henry [VI] gave another of his cousins the job of managing England for him – Lord Somerset. ibid.
York’s absolutely certain that he should be in charge; Margaret’s absolutely certain she should be in charge … York storms out of London and begins to gather troops. ibid.
Richard Duke of York has come to London expecting to be made Lord Protector of England. He has accused the Queen’s man Somerset of treason and demanded to take his place in charge of England. ibid.
Henry VI has woken after a year in a catatonic stupor. Queen Margaret’s ally Somerset is immediately released from the Tower. It’s a disaster for the Duke of York. ibid.
Margaret’s troops march north … Margaret outnumbers York two to one … She brings the king along for legitimacy. ibid.
Less than a year later, his great ally Warwick attacks the royal army at Northampton. Queen Margaret escapes … York has made his decision – he’s going to take the Crown … They take the Queen’s revenge. ibid.
1461: Britain’s weakest King, Henry VI, is barely clinging to power. Richard Duke of York has been killed trying to snatch the throne from him. Three months later, York’s son Edward takes his revenge on the King. Dan Jones, Britain’s Bloody Crown II
In May 1465 Elizabeth Woodville is crowned Queen of England. All the great Nobles attend except one. The Earl of Warwick. The Kingmaker. It’s a direct snub to the King and his new Queen. ibid.
Redesdale demands the Queen’s family, the Woodvilles, are removed from power. King Edward heads north to crush him. ibid.
After ten years in captivity, Edward releases Henry VI from the Tower. ibid.
Henry VI is back on the throne of England. It’s not going well. In March 1471 Edward IV lands in Yorkshire claiming that he only wants his Dukedom returned. Dan Jones, Britain’s Bloody Crown III: The Princes Must Die
Henry died … Edward has had him killed. ibid.