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England: 1456 – 1899 (III)
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★ England: 1456 – 1899 (III)

England 1456 – 1899 (III): see England & England: 1456 – 1899 (I) & (II) & (IV) & England: Early – 1455 (I) & (II) & England: 1900 – Date & Great Britain & United Kingdom & Scotland & Wales & Ireland & Northern Ireland & English Civil Wars & Anglo-Saxons & Roman Empire & British Empire & UK Foreign Relations & Vikings & Normans & Europe & War

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31,094.  Nelson was the first of his kind.  He was an inspiring commander who forged a new more personal style of leadership risking his own life alongside his men he died fighting to defend his king and country.  (England & Great Britain & Navy)  Lucy Moore, Great Britons: Horatio Nelson, BBC 2002

 

31,095.  Horatio Nelson was born in 1758 in the village of Burnham Thorpe, two miles from the coast of Norfolk.  (England & Great Britain & Navy)  ibid.

 

31,096.  Nelson was one of the first spin doctors of his own destiny.  He was a master of self-promotion.  (England & Great Britain & Navy)  ibid.

 

31,097.  The French fleet was trapped in a pincer movement ... The battle began with a vengeance.  (England & Great Britain & Navy)  ibid.

 

31,098.  Back in Britain Nelson’s victory at the Nile was being celebrated.  (England & Great Britain & Navy)  ibid. 

 

31,100.  Britain was still at war with France, and the kingdom of Naples was a neutral power ... Sir William Hamilton and Nelson persuaded the king and queen to ally themselves with England.  This was effectively a declaration of war.  (England & Great Britain & Navy)  ibid. 

 

31,101.  It is hard to overestimate the fear of a French invasion at this time.  (England & Great Britain & Navy)  ibid.

 

31,102.  Nelson was hit by a sniper just after one o’clock; the bullet entered his shoulder, went through his lung and severed his spine.  (England & Great Britain & Navy)  ibid.  

 

31,103.  Nelson’s appeal endures because he combined courage with compassion; fated for his successes he never forgot the key to his glory was the loyalty of his men.  He was superman and every man.  The first and his kind and the prototype for all our heroes to come.  (England & Great Britain & Navy)  ibid.

 

 

31,104.  In Britain today many people still feel that they have one quality in common – for many Britons a stiff upper lip remains a badge of national pride.  (England & Great Britain)  Ian Hislop’s Stiff Upper Lip: An Emotional History of Britain I, BBC 2012

 

31,105.  Those who embraced the cult of sensibility weren’t always thinking of others.  (England & Great Britain)  ibid.

 

31,106.  Never before had feeling been so fashionable.  (England & Great Britain & Feeling)  ibid.

 

31,107.  Mary Wollstonecraft – in 1772 this novelist, historian and thinker, produced the first book on female liberation – A Vindication Of The Rights of Woman.  (England & Great Britain & Woman)  ibid.

 

31,108.  The first national icon of the nineteenth century – Admiral Horatio Nelson.  (England & Great Britain)  ibid.

 

31,109.  It was the sober example of Wellington that now spoke most directly to the priorities of Victorian Britain.  (England & Great Britain)  ibid.

 

 

31,110.  Englishmen and Englishwomen across society just did not get emotional in public.  (England & Great Britain & Emotion)  Ian Hislop’s Stiff Upper Lip  An Emotional History of Britain II: Heyday

 

31,111.  The ideal of the stiff upper lip reached its zenith.  (England & Great Britain & Emotion)  ibid.

 

31,112.  Self-control was now becoming a hallmark of the British middle class.  (England & Great Britain)  ibid.

 

31,113.  No-one would repeat [Matthew] Webb’s achievement for thirty-six years.  (England & Great Britain & Swimming)  ibid.

 

31,114.  Something in the ideal of the British character had to change.  (England & Great Britain)  ibid.

 

 

31,115.  He [William Wilberforce] became the conscience of the nation and inspired a generation of eccentric, obsessive yet remarkable individuals.  (England & Great Britain & Slavery & Philanthropy)  Ian Hislop’s Age of the Do-Gooders I, BBC 2010

 

31,116.  Wilberforce could be seen as the godfather of the do-gooders.  (England & Great Britain & Slavery & Philanthropy)  ibid.

 

31,117.  In 1813 an essay was published in a series called A New View of Society.  it was dedicated to Wilberforce as the nation's leading reformer, and it offered up a radical vision ... The key to creating human happiness was to change human character ... Robert Owen.  (England & Great Britain & Philanthropy & Society)  ibid. 

 

31,118.  Owen’s first step was the improvement of workers’ homes.  (England & Great Britain & Philanthropy & Housing)  ibid.

 

31,119.  What happens when people don’t want to be done good to?  (England & Great Britain & Good & Philanthropy)  ibid.

 

31,120.  The do-gooders were busy social engineering.  (England & Great Britain & Philanthropy & Society)  ibid.

 

31,121.  George Dawson’s radical message came to be called the Civic Gospel.  (England & Great Britain & Philanthropy)  ibid.

 

31,122.  The public ethos was a Victorian invention, and perhaps the greatest one of all.  (England & Great Britain & Philanthropy & Society)  ibid.

 

31,123.  Hill went from strength to strength.  By the early 1880s 378 families were living in homes run by her.  (England & Great Britain & Philanthropy & Housing)  ibid.

 

 

9,040.  In 1848 a popular new hymn for children All Things Bright and Beautiful portrayed a life that was almost feudal ... This was a divinely ordained universe in which everyone knew their place.  (Children & England & Great Britain)  Ian Hislop’s Age of the Do-Gooders II: Suffer the Little Children

 

9,041.  God was the great driving force in Shaftesbury’s life.  He believed we are all children of God.  (Children & England & Great Britain)  ibid.

 

9,042.  Shaftesbury was a man looking for a mission.  And when in 1832 he read a series of articles in The Times about child labour he foundered.  The industrial revolution was changing Britain as never before, and it seemed the inevitable price of progress that children worked oppressive, long hours for meagre wages in unregulated workplaces.  And few people cared.  (Children & England & Work & Labour & Philanthropy & Great Britain)  ibid.

 

9,043.  The MP for Bolton, who was a mine owner, argued that it would unjustly deprive children of their honest livelihood, and would drive them and their families into the workhouse.  Others suggested that working from a young age was good and developed useful industrious habits ... Others said that the entire mining industry would collapse if it wasn’t allowed to use child labour.  (Children & England & Work & Labour & Mining & Great Britain)  ibid.

 

9,044.  Ragged schools: run by volunteers they took children off the streets, taught them the Bible and if they were lucky to read and write.  (Children & England & School & Great Britain)  ibid.

 

9,045.  In 1862 [Charles] Kingsley wrote the book he’s most famous for – The Water Babies ... He campaigned for improved sanitation and against the pollution of rivers.  (Children & England & Campaign & Pollution & Philanthropy & Great Britain)  ibid.

 

9,046.  Kingsley’s vision for a perfect childhood included a decent education ... Compulsory education for all children was finally introduced.  (Children & England & Education & Philanthropy & Great Britain)  ibid.

 

9,047.  Barnardo is perhaps the most famous of all the Victorian do-gooders.  (Children & England & Philanthropy & Great Britain)  ibid.

 

9,048.  Philanthropic abduction was hugely controversial.  It repeatedly landed Barnardo in hot water.  (Children & England & Philanthropy & Great Britain)  ibid.

 

9,049.  Juvenile prostitution was rampant in London.  Girls as young as nine worked the streets ... The age of consent was raised to sixteen.  (Children & England & Prostitute & Great Britain)  ibid.

 

9,050.  During Queen Victoria’s reign over a hundred acts of parliament for the benefit of children were passed into law.  (Children & England & Law & Great Britain)  ibid.

 

9,051.  The achievements of our do-gooders remain extraordinary.  (Children & England & Great Britain)  ibid.

 

 

31,124.  But one area of life was to prove their toughest challenge yet: the private behaviour of their fellow Britons.  Now sex and alcohol were in the campaigner’s sites.  (England & Great Britain & Alcohol)  Ian Hislop’s Age of the Do-Gooders III: Sinful Sex and Demon Drink

 

31,125.  Britons liked to drink.  A lot.  (England & Great Britain & Alcohol & Drink)  ibid.

 

31,126.  There’s more people selling beer in Preston than any other item.  (England & Great Britain & Alcohol & Beer)  ibid.

 

31,127.  In the Temperance Hall which used to be here [Joseph] Livesey got up and argued that the Society should campaign for the giving up of all alcohol.  Just six friends rallied to his cause ... It marked the birth of teetotalism and the temperance revolution.  (England & Great Britain & Alcohol)  ibid.

 

31,128.  He [Livesey] applied his wit to writing temperance propaganda ... What Livesey started others took up enthusiastically.  By the 1840s the teetotal campaign was developing an independent London base with a new set of supporters.  One was the illustrator and comic artist George Cruikshank ... He signed the pledge.  (England & Great Britain & Alcohol)  ibid.

 

31,129.  A rift opened up between the pragmatic Dickens and the increasingly fundamentalist Cruikshank.  (England & Great Britain & Alcohol)  ibid.

  

31,130.  The vice trade: the Victorians called it the Great Social Evil ... In London alone according to contemporary estimates anywhere from 10 to 80,000 women were involved in prostitution.  (England & Great Britain & Prostitute)  ibid.

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