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Theories of Relativity
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★ Theories of Relativity

Theories of Relativity: see Einstein & Science & Physics & Laws of Science & Theory of Everything & Particle Accelerator & Particles & Theory

Albert Einstein - Anonymous - Stephen Hawking TV - Jim Al-Khalili TV - The Universe TV - Neil deGrasse Tyson TV - John C Mather & John Boslough - Brian Cox TV - Beyond the Big Bang TV - Geoffrey Landis - Nova TV - The Washington Post TV - Extreme Universe - BBC Horizon TV - Kip Thorne - Inside Einsteins Mind TV - Sylvia Nasar -   

 

 

139,710.  It followed from the special theory of relativity that mass and energy are both but different manifestations of the same thing – a somewhat unfamiliar conception for the average mind.  Furthermore, the equation E = mc², in which energy is put equal to mass, multiplied by the square of the velocity of light, showed that very small amounts of mass may be converted into a very large amount of energy and vice versa.  The mass and energy were in fact equivalent, according to the formula mentioned before.  This was demonstrated by Cockcroft and Walton in 1932, experimentally.  (Einstein & Theories of Relativity)  Albert Einstein, Atomic Physics, 1948

 

 

79,374. There was a young lady named Bright

Who travelled much faster than light.

She set out one day

In a relative way,

And came back the previous night.  (Limericks & Light & Theory of Relativity)  Anonymous, attributed to Arthur Buller

 

 

2,752.  Hawking was going to have to unify the two great but very different theories of physics – Einstein’s theory of relativity is the theory of the very large ... Quantum physics is the theory of the very small ... Hawking would have to force the two together.  (Universe & Theory of Everything & Theories of Relativity & Quantum Physics)  Stephen Hawking, Master of the Universe

 

 

2,925.  By 1928 Physics was struggling with a big problem.  The two most important theories that describe how the universe worked didn’t agree with each other.  (Universe & Astronomy & Quantum Physics & Theories of Relativity & Physics & Theory)  Professor Jim Al-Khalili, Everything & Nothing: Nothing

 

 

3,336.  But if a black hole is extremely tiny, the laws of quantum mechanics merge with the laws of General Relativity.  (Black Hole & Quantum Physics & Theories of Relativity)  The Universe s2e2: Cosmic Holes, 2007

 

 

91,035.  For decades scientists have been searching for one cohesive all-encompassing theory, one that would unite Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity, which explains how gravity works over long scales with Quantum Physics, the science of the tiniest matter.  Together, these two great theories explain everything humanity knows so far about the cosmos.  But, like a cartoon cat and mouse, they’re at war with one another.  (Theory of Everything & Quantum Theory & Theories of Relativity)  The Universe s3e2: Parallel Universes, 2008

 

 

3,097.  Space itself then is the exception to the rule: it can expand faster than the speed of light.  But everything inside it remains bound by Albert Einstein and his Theory of Relativity.  (Space & Light & Theory of Relativity & Universe)  The Universe s3e3: Light Speed, 2008

 

 

91,192.  Of all the riddles of the universe time travel may be the most perplexing.  Time travel could involve going back in time or speeding into the future.  But for the moment every one of us is frozen in the present.  Yet Science holds out the possibility that we might loosen the hold that Time has on us.  Einstein’s Theory of Relativity, in which Time plays a central role, makes time travel an open question.  (Time & Theories of Relativity & Universe)  The Universe s5e4: Time Travel, 2010

 

 

3,268.  Most of what Einstein said and did has no direct impact on what anybody reads in the Bible.  Special relativity, his work in quantum mechanics, nobody even knows or cares.  Where Einstein really affects the Bible is the fact that general relativity is the organizing principle for the Big Bang.  (Big Bang & Einstein & Theories of Relativity & Bible)  Neil deGrasse Tyson

 

 

3,274.  In groundbreaking papers in 1922 and 1924, [Alexander] Friedman demonstrated mathematically that the universe could very well be a dynamic system that, regulated by the gravity of general relativity, could expand indefinitely or collapse back on itself like a deflated balloon.  A third possibility was that the universe was in a state of precise balance between infinite expansion and collapse.  What would determine the true dynamic of the universe?  According to Friedman, the average density of mass within the universe would define how space curved as described by general relativity.  Such a curvature would establish the way the universe changed over time.

 

Einstein would have none of this.  Philosophically insecure with anything but a static universe, he had inserted into the equations of general relativity his famous ‘cosmological constant’.  This was a mathematical contrivance aimed at preventing just the kinds of unstable universe predicated by Friedman who, in making a number of simplifying assumptions, had removed the constant from his own mathematical calculations.  (Big Bang & Theories of Relativity)  John C Mather & John Boslough, The Very First Light p36

 

3,275.  If the universe were expanding, the question remained: What had it expanded from?  Georges Lemaître, one of the strangest characters to wander onto the stage of twentieth-century physics, was the first one to attempt an answer.  Born in Belgium in 1894, Lemaître was plump, irritating, and ahead of his time.  In 1927, unaware of Alexander Friedman’s work, Lemaître published a paper in an obscure Belgian journal in which he drew a mathematical theory that linked general relativity with the comparatively few redshifts that already had been seen.  Lemaître concluded in the paper that the universe must be expanding.  His hypothesis was two years before Hubble’s announcement that he had discovered galaxies in recession.

 

Later the same year at the fifth Solvay conference on physics in Brussels, Lemaître tried to get Einstein’s attention.  Normally tolerant and kind, Einstein pushed him aside abruptly, saying, ‘Vos calcus sont corrects, mais vorte physique est abominable.’  [Your calculations are correct, but your physical insight is abominable.]  Undeterred by Einstein, already the most famous physicist in the world, and bolstered by the confirmation Hubbles’s redshift observations had given his new theory, Lemaître extrapolated his theory to what seemed to him its logical conclusion: The universe must have originated in a primordial explosion.

 

A letter Lemaître wrote to Nature magazine in 1931 was effectively the charter of what was to become the Big Bang theory.  He theorized that this primordial explosion, occurring on ‘a day without yesterday’, had burst forth from an extremely dense point of space and time.  He began calling this the ‘primeval atom’.  By now Lemaître had become a celebrity in his own right for his revolutionary ideas.  At an immense gathering of the British Association for the Advancement of Science in London the same year, he speculated before an audience of several thousand scientists that the cosmic rays may have originated in the primordial explosion.  Eventually, he thought, they might prove to be material evidence of the universe’s ‘natural beginning’.  (Big Bang & Theories of Relativity)  ibid. pp41-42

 

 

3,435.  The new theory – called General Relativity – was published in 1915 by Albert Einstein after ten years of work.  And it stands to this day as one of the great achievements in the history of Physics.  (Gravity & Theories of Relativity & Albert Einstein)  Professor Brian Cox, Wonders of the Universe: Falling 3/4

 

 

71,126.  Born in Germany in 1879 Albert Einstein may be the most famous scientist that ever lived ... He thought of a revolution in Space and Time.  Without Einstein we might still be struggling to understand how the universe really works.  In 1905 Einstein published his Theory of Special Relativity exploring the link between Space and Time ... He thought of this new Space-Time as a fabric weaving together Space and Time.  In 1915 Einstein developed his Theory of General Relativity, which modifies Special Relativity to include Gravity, and its effects on this fabric of Space-Time.  (Einstein & Theories of Relativity)  Beyond the Big Bang  

 

 

71,128.  In Einstein’s view there isn’t really a separate thing as Space and then there’s Time.   But there’s just one thing – Space-Time, that we all live in.  (Einstein & Theories of Relativity)  Geoffrey Landis, NASA Glenn Research Centre

 

 

71,130.  What would I see if I rode on a beam of light?  (Einstein & Theories of Relativity & Light)  Nova: Einstein’s Big Idea I PBC 2013, Einstein

 

71,131.  Would you like me to check your mathematics?  (Einstein & Theories of Relativity & Mathematics)  ibid.  wife to Einstein

 

71,132.  Bern, Switzerland 1905: a hundred years ago a deceptively simple formula revealed a hidden unity buried deep in the fabric of the universe.  (Einstein & Theories of Relativity)  ibid.

 

71,133.  What Einstein would call the Great Revolution.  (Einstein & Theories of Relativity)  ibid.

 

 

79,270.  So, the day after news broke of a possible revolution in physics – particles moving faster than light – a scientist leading the European experiment that made the discovery calmly explained it to a standing-room-only crowd at CERN, the giant particle accelerator straddling the Swiss-French border.

 

The physicist, Dario Auterio, made no sweeping claims.

 

He did not try to explain what the results might mean for the laws of physics, let alone the broader world.

 

After an hour of technical talk, he simply said, ‘Therefore, we present to you today this discrepancy, this anomaly.’

 

But what an anomaly it may be.  From 2009 through 2011, the massive OPERA detector buried in a mountain in Gran Sasso, Italy, recorded subatomic particles called neutrinos generated at CERN arriving a smidgen early, faster than light can move in a vacuum.  If confirmed, the finding would throw more than a century of physics into chaos.

 

‘If it’s correct, it’s phenomenal,’ said Rob Plunkett, a scientist at Fermilab, the Department of Energy physics laboratory in Illinois.  ‘We’d be looking at a whole new set of rules for how the universe works.’

 

Those rules would bend, or possibly break, Albert Einstein’s special theory of relativity, published in 1905.  Radical at the time, the theory tied together space and time, matter and energy, and set a hard limit for the speed of light, later measured to be about 186,000 miles per second.

 

No experiment in 106 years had broken that speed limit.  (Light & Theories of Relativity & Particle Accelerator)  The Washington Post online article, Particles Faster than Light: Revolution or Mistake? 23rd September 2011

 

 

91,023.  Einstein’s Theory of Special Relativity shows how speed changes the very fabric of Space and Time.  Near the Speed of Light, Time slows to a crawl; reach the Speed of Light and Time stops altogether.  The Theory of General Relativity: it’s been called the greatest scientific insight in human history.  General Relativity builds on the Theory of Special Relativity and everything it said about Speed.  Extreme Universe: Speeding Through Space  

 

General Relativity shined a light on Speed’s role in the workings of our universe.  And while it shook the foundations of Physics, it led to a greater understanding of the cosmos.  It’s predicted things like black holes.  And hints at the existence of a universe where truly strange things might be possible.  ibid.

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