BBC Horizon - Lost Worlds of the Bible: The Hittites TV - Tessa Dunlop - Thomas Zimmerman - Richard Miles TV - Troy: The Truth Behind the Legend TV - Robin Lane Fox TV - Lost Cities of the Ancients TV -
91,742. In May this year Hollywood releases its latest epic. It’s the story of the Trojan war. But is any of it more than just a myth? Tonight Horizon can reveal the latest scientific evidence about the real Troy. The evidence comes from the written tablets of a lost civilisation; a lost shipwreck and treasure uncovered at Troy itself. (Troy & Greece & Bronze Age & Mycenae & Hittites) Horizon: The Truth of Troy
91,743. The story was composed by the Greek poet Homer almost three thousand years ago. It’s so compelling that for centuries people wondered whether any of it was true. Was there a war fought for love? Did a coalition of Greeks set sail? Did Troy even exist? (Troy & Greece & Bronze Age & Mycenae & Hittites) ibid.
91,744. The first breakthrough was made by Heinrich Schliemann in 1870. He was something of an amateur but he had other qualities ... They placed Troy in the north west corner of what is now Turkey ... Fifteen metres down he found a walled palace with a paved ramp leading to a gate. Schliemann thought he had found Homer’s Troy. The rest of the world wasn’t so sure. But in this trench he answered the doubters with a breath-taking discovery: treasure. (Troy & Greece & Bronze Age & Mycenae & Hittites & Treasure & Archaeology) ibid.
91,745. These jewels could never have been worn by Helen. They were more than a thousand years too old. Schliemann had dug down too deep. (Troy & Greece & Bronze Age & Mycenae & Hittites & Treasure & Archaeology) ibid.
91,746. Perhaps there was more to Troy than had so far been uncovered. Outside the city walls [Manfred] Korfmann’s team began to excavate ... A city of the late Bronze Age was now revealed. Korfmann believes it was a sizeable city with a population between four and eight thousand. (Troy & Greece & Bronze Age & Mycenae & Hittites & Archaeology) ibid.
91,747. After three thousand years the legendary city of Troy seemed to have become a reality. It seemed there was some historical truth in the myth. But there was still no evidence that Troy had been destroyed as Homer said by an enemy army ... Soon they began to find evidence of violence. (Troy & Greece & Bronze Age & Mycenae & Hittites) ibid.
91,748. But were the Greeks capable of mounting an expedition together? (Troy & Greece & Bronze Age & Mycenae & Hittites) ibid.
91,749. Another possible motivation for a war began to emerge from the stones of Mycenae. That motivation was greed. (Troy & Greece & Bronze Age & Mycenae & Hittites) ibid.
91,750. Korfmann believes that Troy became a wealthy city because of its strategic position as a gateway between two continents. So it seems Troy was a very desirable city, desirable to the Mycenaeans because of its wealth. (Troy & Greece & Bronze Age & Mycenae & Hittites) ibid.
91,751. The late Bronze Age was a time of rich trade, of great wealth being moved across the high seas. (Troy & Greece & Bronze Age & Mycenae & Hittites) ibid.
91,752. The Hittites ... A superpower of the late Bronze Age ... The tablets described festering conflicts involving the Mycenaeans all along the coast ... Conflicts spread over two hundred years. The tablets stated Mycenaean warriors had once fought at the gates of Troy to win Helen back. That it was a war of love and vengeance. It makes a wonderful story but it has never seemed very likely. (Troy & Greece & Bronze Age & Mycenae & Hittites) ibid.
91,753. The tablets show that Troy was an ally of the Hittites. If Troy was attacked the Hittites were likely to come and fight alongside them. So Homer’s legend appears to have been based on a real conflict between two superpowers of the Late Bronze Age - the Mycenaeans and the Hittites. (Troy & Greece & Bronze Age & Mycenae & Hittites) ibid.
91,754. So there was no face that launched by a thousand ships. The war or wars were not fought for love but more likely for gold and loot. And what of the Trojan Horse? (Troy & Greece & Bronze Age & Mycenae & Hittites) ibid.
56,985. The name of the Hittites has come down to us from the oldest stories in the Bible, where they appear as a ferocious tribe inhabiting the fringes of the Holy Land. Almost nothing more was known about them until the 19th century when explorers travelling the empty expanse of Central Turkey found a lost city ... This was Hattusa, the capital city of a forgotten empire, the construction of which was centuries ahead of its time. It was perched on a high plateau and surrounded by an impregnable wall ... A network of subterranean tunnels and an extensive temple complex ... a citadel ... Why did such an advanced and mighty empire suddenly vanish? (Hittite & Turkey) Lost Worlds of the Bible: The Hittites
75,994. The Hittites had an evolving legal system that was more concerned with practicality than punishment. The most significant aspect of Hittite law was treaty making ... Shrewd diplomacy was their best secret weapon. (Hittite & Turkey) ibid.
75,995. Archaeologists have found no evidence the walls were breached by a foreign enemy ... The Hittites turned on each other ... Rival factions tore the empire apart ... The entire region was plunged into chaos ... Remnants of Hittite civilisation persisted. (Hittite & Turkey) ibid.
56,986. For three thousand years, all we had on the Hittites was a few references in the Bible. That was it. (Hittite & Turkey) Tessa Dunlop, Hittite researcher
56,987. For the first time in old world history, we have a major battle that was fought between nations, not only rivalling chiefdoms or rivalling cities, but the Hittites on the one side, and the Egyptians on the other. (Hittites & Egyptians & Turkey) Thomas Zimmerman, Associate Professor at Bilkent University
56,988. By the middle of the second millennium B.C. there was a new game to play - Diplomacy. The Hittite Kings of Anatolia were the pioneers of this new form of war by other means. (Hittites & Diplomacy & Turkey) Richard Miles, Ancient Worlds: Come Together
56,989. The Hittites: this powerful people ruled large areas of Anatolia and Syria in the second millennium B.C. They were on equal footing with the great Egyptian empire ... This was probably the first east/west conflict in world history. (Hittite & Troy & Turkey) Troy: The Truth Behind the Legend
56,990. Mount Cassius was a holy mountain for the Hittites. The Hittites' old empire had fallen around 1,200 B.C. four centuries before Nubians settled here. At its peak it had ruled over a vast swathe of land. (Hittite & Turkey & Greek Mythology) Professor Robin Lane Fox, Greek Myths: Tales of Travelling Heroes, 2010
56,991. The stories we know from other Hittite texts about the many battles and fights of the Hittite gods for control in Heaven. Most remarkably, these Hittite myths share many details with the Greek myths of how their ruling gods came to power. The myths are so similar. Did the Hittite one influence the Greeks? (Hittite & Turkey & Greek Mythology) ibid.
56,992. One of the stories we have of the Hittite snake monster is that at first it defeated the storm god Tarhunta then stole his eyes and heart, which he hid in a cave. In later Greek myth, Zeus too is defeated at first by the snaky monster - in Greek Typhon. On Mount Cassius itself we’re told. (Hittite & Turkey & Greek Mythology) ibid.