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61,481. Could the West be consigned to history? Without superior science there would be no Western superpower today. But it wasn’t always like this. A thousand years ago it was the Muslim world that was at the cutting edge of science. (Civilisation & Science & Muslim & Ottoman & Turkey) Niall Ferguson, Civilisation: Is the West History? II Science 2011
84,342. For the Ottoman empire it was the beginning of the end. A moment of imperial overstretch with disastrous consequences. It was actually the first time the Ottomans had had to accept a peace treaty from victorious Christian adversities. (Civilisation & Science & Muslim & Ottoman & Turkey) ibid.
689. In stark contrast the Ottomans’ progress was severely hampered by religion. In the words of one Muslim cleric: ‘It is rare that someone becomes absorbed in this foreign science without renouncing religion and letting go the reigns of piety within him.’ (Religion & Science & Ottoman & Muslim & Civilisation & Turkey) ibid.
690. Muslim scientists could not even access the latest research from Europe. Because their religion now prevented them from reading printed books. For the Ottomons script was sacred. (Religion & Muslim & Science & Ottoman & Books & Civilisation & Turkey) ibid.
691. In Ottoman schools science yielded to narrowly religious study. (Religion & Science & Ottoman & School & Muslim & Civilisation & Turkey) ibid.
84,343. Abdul [Hamid] was determined to emulate Western civilisation in every respect. (Civilisation & Science & Muslim & Ottoman & Turkey) ibid.
84,344. Fourteen tons of gold leaf were used to used guild the palace ceilings, from which hung a grand total of thirty-six chandeliers ... This place is so wildly over the top it’s a like a cross between Grand Central Station and the Grand Paris Opera. But it shows just how far the Ottomans was prepared to go to imitate the ways of the West. (Civilisation & Science & Muslim & Ottoman & Turkey) ibid.
84,345. The Ottomans still didn’t really get it. Because if they were serious with catching up with the West they needed so much more than just a Western-style palace. They needed a new constitution. A new alphabet. A whole new state. And the fact they ended up getting all of these things was thanks in very large part to one man: his name was Kemal Ataturk. His mission was to be Turkey’s Frederick the Great. (Civilisation & Science & Muslim & Ottoman & Turkey) ibid.
84,346. For six centuries the Christian West and the Ottoman empire in the Muslim east had been locked in conflict. Now under the rule of Kemal Ataturk in the early twentieth century that conflict would finally come to an end. For centuries, Ataturk argued, Turks had been walking from the East in the direction of the West. Now under his leadership they would finally reach their destination. Here on the banks of the Bosphorus, East would meet West. Not just geographically but culturally. Central to the Western orientation of Turkey was the introduction of a secular form of government. No longer would religion be allowed to dominate the political arena. There would be secular laws for a secular state. (Civilisation & Science & Muslim & Ottoman & Turkey) ibid.
26,272. The six-hundred-year-old Ottoman Empire was a spent force. (World War I & Ottoman) The First World War: War Without End
56,533. In March 1917 the British captured Baghdad. In December they entered Jerusalem. The loss of both cities was a severe blow to Ottoman authority in the Middle East. (Jerusalem & Ottoman) The First World War: Germany’s Last Gamble
61,220. Of equal important in the spiralling decline of the Islamic empires were external factors, in particular the growing power of Christian Europe. The last of the great Muslim empires was that of the Ottomans. The heartland of the Ottoman Empire was Turkey. It began its rise to power in the fifteenth century, and eventually its armies reached the gates of Vienna. It was here in 1683 that European forces decisively halted Islamic expansion. For two months 200,000 soldiers fought each other outside the city walls. In the end the Ottoman army was defeated. (Islam & Muslim & Ottoman & Turkey) Decoding the Past: The Koran
61,258. In the city of Istanbul the soaring domes and minarets reveal the culmination of a thousand years of empire and faith. (Islam & Muslim & Ottoman & Turkey) Empires: Islam: Empire of Faith III: The Ottomans
61,259. It was an age of regal splendour. (Islam & Muslim & Ottoman & Turkey) ibid.
61,260. The Ottoman Turks began as a nomadic people. (Islam & Muslim & Ottoman & Turkey) ibid.
61,261. They began to organise the new empire. (Islam & Muslim & Ottoman & Turkey) ibid.
61,262. By the middle of the 15th century the Ottoman empire spread from present day Turkey, known as Anatolia, deep into the Balkans, with one critical exception: Constantinople. (Islam & Muslim & Ottoman & Turkey) ibid.
61,263. The single greatest church in Christendom was now a mosque. (Islam & Muslim & Ottoman & Turkey) ibid.
61,264. The Ottomans had reached the gates of the West. (Islam & Muslim & Ottoman & Turkey) ibid.
61,265. The Ottoman empire would reach its apex under Suleiman’s reign. (Islam & Muslim & Ottoman & Turkey) ibid.
65,881. During the fifteen century the Ottoman Turks ruthlessly gobbled up the Byzantine lands. Soon all that was left was the once great city of Constantinople ... On the 29th May 1543 the Ottomans poured into the city ... It was a savage end to the long Christian history of the Byzantine Empire. (Byzantium & Ottoman & Turkey) Professor Diarmaid MacCulloch, A History of Christianity
84,321. On the edge of Europe is the city that was once the heart of a mighty empire. From here in Istanbul the glories of the Ottoman Empire came to match those of ancient Rome. (Ottoman & Turkey) Rageh Omaar, The Ottomans I: Europe's Muslim Emperors, BBC 2013
84,322. A single family ruled over huge swathes of the world. (Ottoman & Turkey) ibid.
84,323. The break-up of the Ottoman Empire after the First World War ... The Ottomans first emerged over seven hundred years ago. (Ottoman & Turkey) ibid.
84,324. The early Ottomans matched the sophisticated infrastructure of the Romans. (Ottoman & Turkey) ibid.
84,325. The Ottomans took Christian children to provide manpower within the empire. (Ottoman & Turkey) ibid.
84,326. Two rival powers on a collision course: Ottomans v Safavids ... The Ottomans tamed the Safavid empire, they did not defeat it. (Ottoman & Turkey) ibid.
84,327. In 1517 Ottoman troops marched into battle in Egypt. (Ottoman & Turkey) ibid.
84,328. This is the magnificent Topkapi palace, the nerve centre of the most powerful Muslim empire the world has ever seen. It was built by the Ottoman sultan Mehmed II in the middle of the fifteenth century. (Ottoman & Turkey) Rageh Omaar, The Ottomans II
84,329. His father had taken control of new lands across Africa and the Arab Muslim world. (Ottoman & Turkey) ibid.
84,330. Sulaman: first and foremost he was emperor and he wanted to be as strong as possible in that role. (Ottoman & Turkey) ibid.
84,331. Sulaman spent a quarter of his reign on the battlefield and expanded the empire almost to the peak of his power. (Ottoman & Turkey) ibid.
84,332. The Ottomans didn’t capture Vienna, and they lost Hungary. (Ottoman & Turkey) ibid.
84,333. An old world dynasty colliding with the modern world. (Ottoman & Turkey) ibid.
84,334. The war between Russia and Turkey was the big news of the day. (Ottoman & Turkey) ibid.
136,375. In early November 1913 in Istanbul, the capital of the Turkish Ottoman Empire, a new web was unveiled: it would spread the First World far beyond the borders of Europe … This was how the Ottoman empire would enter the First World War: not just with a declaration of war but with a declaration of jihad: Holy War. (World War I & Black People & Ottoman Empire & Turkey) David Olusoga, The World’s War: Forgotten Soldiers of Empire II: Martial Races