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5,930. Everywhere you look you can see evolution using Nature’s self-organising patterns. (Evolution & Nature) Professor Jim Al-Khalili, The Secret Life of Chaos BBC
5,931. They can simulate evolution: more precisely, computers can use the principles of evolution to shape and refine their own programs, in the same way the natural world uses evolution to shape and refine living organisms. (Evolution & Computers) ibid.
5,932. The power of self-organisation: it demonstrates that evolution is itself just like the other systems we’ve encountered: one based on simple rules and feedback from which complexity spontaneously emerges. ibid.
5,933. Is it on your grandmother’s or grandfather’s side that you are descended from an ape? (Evolution & Ape) Soapy Sam Wilberforce, to Thomas Huxley debate
5,934. The principle of natural selection is completely incompatible with the word of God. The ideas are inconsistent with the fullness of his glory and present a dishonouring view of Nature. Soapy Sam Wilberforce
5,935. It is not who is right, but what is right that is of importance. (Evolution & Right) Thomas Huxley
5,936. I asserted – and I repeat – that a man has no reason to be ashamed of having an ape for his grandfather. If there were an ancestor whom I should feel shame in recalling it would rather be a man – a man of restless and versatile intellect – who, not content with an equivocal success in his own sphere of activity, plunges into scientific questions with which he has no real acquaintance, only to obscure them by an aimless rhetoric, and distract the attention of his hearers from the real point at issue by eloquent digressions and skilled appeals to religious prejudice. (Evolution & Ape & Debate & Intellect) Thomas H Huxley, replying to Soapy Wilberforce
5,937. Today all serious scientists agree that evolution has occurred. You should be forgiven that in 1938 this point should not need repeating. Unfortunately certain types of Christian propaganda still maintain that there is serious doubt about it. Let us use our science to finish the speculation. The superstition. The witchcraft. Proof for evolution. Proof for Darwin. This is the goal. It would be the achievement of the age. (Evolution & Science & Proof) Professor Julian Huxley, lecture Cambridge cited Horizon: Wings of Angels, 1999
5,938. No opinion can be heretical, but that which is not true ... Conflicting falsehoods we can comprehend; but truths can never war against each other. I affirm, therefore, that we have nothing to fear from the results of our enquiries, provided they be followed in the laborious but secure road of honest induction. In this way we may rest assured that we shall never arrive at conclusions opposed to any truth, either physical or moral, from whatever source that truth may be derived. (Evolution & Truth) Reverend Adam Sedgwick, address 1831 meeting London Geological Society
5,973. Scene. In the fastnesses of Tennessee, the quiet of dawn is split asunder by wailing screams from a steam siren. It is the Dayton sawmill, waking up villagers and farmers for miles around. From 5 until 6:30 the blasts continue. The hamlet and the fantastic cross between a circus and a holy war that is in progress there come slowly to life ...
Jury. A jury was sworn — ten farmers, a shipping clerk and a farmer-teacher, none of whom had ever read a book on Evolution or admitted a prejudice for or against it; all of whom, with the exception of one illiterate, had read the Bible.
Trial [Scopes]: Lawyer Bryan, palm leaf fan in hand, collarless, led the prosecution forces into Court shortly before 9 o’clock. A few of the more courageous clung to their coats, but the heat soon overcame their vanity, with the exception of foppish, double-breasted-coated Dudley Field Malone.
… Lawyer Darrow then began his long argument for the defense, basing it on the diversion of the caption of the act from the act itself and on the ambiguity of the indictment. ‘I am going to argue it [the case] as if it was serious ... The Book of Genesis, written when everybody thought the world was flat ... Religious ignorance and bigotry as any that justified the Spanish Inquisition or the hanging of witches in New England ... The State of Tennessee has no more right to teach the Bible as the Divine Book than it has the Koran, the Book of Mormon, the Book of Confucius, the Buddha or the Essays of Emerson ... Who is the Chief Mogul that can tell us what the Bible means?’ (Evolution & Teaching & Trial) Time magazine article 20th July 1925 ‘Education: The Great Trial’
5,974. ‘We are looking for a Tennessee teacher who is willing to accept our services in testing this law in the courts,’ Professor Skinner states. ‘Our lawyers think a friendly test can be arranged without costing a teacher his or her job. Distinguished counsel have volunteered their services. All we need now is a willing client.’ (Evolution & Teaching & Trial) ACLU advert all Tennessee newspapers
5,975. In 1925 the Tennessee legislature passed the Butler Act which made it a misdemeanour to teach the evolution of only one species — mankind — in the public schools. The evolution of 99.9999% of all other plant and animal life (about two million other species), or the evolution of the earth or the solar system, could all be taught as either compelling theory or proven fact without violating the Butler Act ...
John Scopes, a high school football coach and mathematics teacher who only substituted for Dayton’s regular biology teacher, never taught evolution to anybody. As he confided to acclaimed newspaper reporter, William K Hutchinson, ‘I didn’t violate the law ... I never taught that evolution lesson. Those kids they put on the stand couldn’t remember what I taught them three months ago. They were coached by the lawyers.’ (Evolution & Teaching & Trial) TheMonkeyTrial.com
5,976. Dayton, Tennessee July 10th 1925: it was the day a twenty-four-year-old teacher named John Thomas Scopes went on trial for teaching Darwin’s Theory of Evolution in a public school classroom. (Evolution & Teaching & Trial) The Monkey Trial, PBS
5,977. A judge who believed he had been chosen by God. (Evolution & Judge & Trial) ibid.
5,978. At the centre of it all two of the most colourful and controversial men in America ... A duel over science and religion. (Evolution & Trial) ibid.
5,979. The new law made it a crime ... Teachers who violated the law could be fined. (Evolution & Teaching & Trial) ibid.
5,980. Most people thought the new law would never be enforced. (Evolution & Trial) ibid.
5,981. Scopes agreed to be arrested. (Evolution & Trial) ibid.
5,982. Hollywood sent newsreel crews and photographers. (Evolution & Trial) ibid.
5,983. Darrow came to Dayton because he believed in free speech and because he wanted to challenge a man who was in many ways his polar opposite, William Jennings Bryan. (Evolution & Free Speech & Trial) ibid.
5,984. Bryan believed that the Christian gospel had the power to transform society. (Evolution & Trial) ibid.
5,985. It was obvious, wrote H L Menken, that the jury would be unanimously hot for Genesis. (Evolution & Trial) ibid.
5,986. Monkey songs, monkey souvenirs, monkey jokes – H L Mencken called it Monkey Town. (Evolution & Monkey & Trial) ibid.
5,987. Bryan had compiled a long list of the dangers he saw in Darwin’s theory. (Evolution & Trial) ibid.
5,988. Darrow’s scientists would not be allowed to testify. (Evolution & Trial) ibid.
5,989. Against everyone’s advice Bryan took the witness stand. (Evolution & Trial) ibid.
115,294. In the sweltering summer of 1995 an unassuming teacher called John Thomas Scopes became the lightning rod for one of this country’s most historic legal battles: whether Darwin’s Theory of Evolution should be banned from being taught in public schools. The trial became legend because of the mesmorising courtroom showdown. (Evolution & Trial) In Search of History s1e3: The Monkey Trial, History 1996
115,295. Dayton was about to become the centre of the universe. (Evolution & Trial) ibid.
115,296. Darrow knew his case was in trouble. (Evolution & Trial) ibid.
115,297. Had evolved into a trial of about how humans had came to walk the Earth. (Evolution & Trial) ibid.
5,990. If today you can take a thing like evolution and make it a crime to teach in the public schools, tomorrow you can make it a crime to teach it in the private schools and next year you can make it a crime to teach it to the hustings or in the church. At the next session you may ban books and the newspapers ... Ignorance and fanaticism are ever busy and need feeding. Always feeding and gloating for more ... After a while, Your Honor, it is the setting of man against man and creed against creed until with flying banners and beating drums we are marching backward to the glorious ages of the sixteenth century when bigots lighted fagots to burn the men who dared to bring any intelligence and enlightenment and culture to the human mind. (Evolution & Teaching) Clarence Darrow, address to Scopes Monkey Trial 1925
5,991. Fires have been lighted in America to kindle religious bigotry and hate. (Evolution & Religion) Clarence Darrow
5,992. All the ills from which America suffers can be traced to the teaching of evolution. William Jennings Bryan