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★ Italy

Italy: see Gladio & P2 Lodge & Rome & Romans & Latin & Freemasons & Vatican & World War I & World War II & Europe & European Union & Pope & Fascism & Mafia & Sport & Cars & Fashion & Art & Renaissance & Venice & Sicily

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6,915.  Garibaldi united Italy into one country.  Garibaldi was as great in his day as Mussolini is in ours.  (Teacher & Italy & Great)  The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie II starring Geraldine McEwan & Amanda Kirby & Lynsey Baxter & Vivienne Ross et al, Brodie to class

 

 

131,391.  Many believe that the CIA continued to meddle in Italian elections for decades, making sure Italy was always governed by a right of centre government.  But some historians claim that wasn’t the end of interference in Italian politics.  They claim that after three decades of anti-communist parties in Italy, the US along with Nato went far further, brutally murdering Italy’s popular prime minister Aldo Moro.  (Conspiracy & Cold War & Assassinations: Aldo Moro & Italy & Gladio)  Conspiracy s1e6: The Cold War Files   

 

 

83,257.  But what the Normans were really hungry for was territory and the fertile plains of southern Italy must have presented a tempting site.  Southern Italy was a promised land ripe for the picking.  (Normans & Italy & France)  Professor Robert Bartlett, The Normans III: Normans of the South

 

83,258.  Muslim Sicily was a difficult island to conquer.  (Normans & Italy & France)  ibid.

 

 

86,545.  Florence 1389: a boy is baptised into a Medieval world ... His name was Cosimo de’ Medici.  From humble beginnings his dynasty would seek power and influence and not stop until they had secured the papacy itself.  (Renaissance & Italy)  Empires Special: Medici: Godfathers of the Renaissance: Birth of a Dynasty, PBS 2004

 

86,546.  Florence was also a cauldron of creativity.  (Renaissance & Italy & Art)  ibid.

 

86,547.  The Medici would protect and pay for the greatest artists and thinkers of their age: Michelangelo et al.  (Renaissance & Italy & Art)  ibid.

 

86,548.  The Medici: godfathers of the Renaissance.  (Renaissance & Italy & Art)  ibid.

 

86,549.  Cosimo de’ Medici and his friends were searching for lost secrets from the ancient world.  (Renaissance & Italy)  ibid.

 

86,550.  The Medici bank was a small-scale operation.  (Renaissance & Italy)  ibid.

 

86,551.  [Filippo] Brunelleschi ... a maverick architect ... Brunelleschi's vision would resurrect forgotten concepts of the past.  (Renaissance & Italy & Architecture)  ibid.

 

86,552.  He would have to re-write the rules of Western architecture.  (Renaissance & Italy & Architecture)  ibid.

 

86,553.  Brunelleschi also tried to escape the limitations of his age.  (Renaissance & Italy & Architecture)  ibid.

 

86,554.  Cosimo was accused of treason against the city and her people.  (Renaissance & Italy)  ibid.

 

86,555.  Money talked and Cosimo walked.  (Renaissance & Italy)  ibid.

 

86,556.  The Medici were back in business.  (Renaissance & Italy)  ibid.

 

86,557.  The Council brought together the greatest mix of thinkers, artists, merchants, and churchmen that the world had ever seen.  (Renaissance & Italy & Art)  ibid.

 

 

86,558.  By the mid-15th century the Medici family had fought their way to power in Florence.  They had dictated the taste of the city, presiding over a revolution in Western culture – the Renaissance.  (Renaissance & Italy & Art)  Empires Special: Medici: Godfathers of the Renaissance II: The Magnificent Medici

 

86,559.  The greatest artists the world had ever seen.  (Renaissance & Italy & Art)  ibid.

 

86,560.  Behind the glory lay violence.  (Renaissance & Italy)  ibid.

 

86,561.  Lorenzo worked to protect the future of the Medici dynasty.  (Renaissance & Italy)  ibid.

 

86,562.  He was an artist who would take the world apart ... Leonardo da Vinci.  (Renaissance & Italy & Art & Artists: Da Vinci)  ibid.

 

86,563.  Lorenzo decided to bring Michelangelo into his family.  (Renaissance & Italy & Art & Artists: Da Vinci)  ibid.

 

86,564.  Under Lorenzo, Florence had reached new heights of culture and sophistication.  (Renaissance & Italy & Art & Artists: Da Vinci)  ibid.

 

86,565.  [Sandro] Botticelli ... hurled his own paintings into the flames ... The Bonfire of the Vanities.  (Renaissance & Italy & Art & Artists: Botticelli)  ibid.

 

 

86,566.  For over a century one family had run the city of Florence.  They had carved their name into the heart of the Florentine Renaissance – the Medici.  But at the height of their success they had been toppled by a sudden revolution.  Now two cousins reigned as brothers.  (Renaissance & Italy)  Empires Special: Medici: Godfathers of the Renaissance III: The Medici Popes

 

86,567.  Fifteen years earlier the sculptor had been adopted into the greatest family in Florence.  Michelangelo had moved in with the Medici.  (Renaissance & Italy & Art & Artists: Michelangelo)  ibid.

 

86,568.  A bloody civil war exploded in the streets of Florence.  (Renaissance & Italy)  ibid.

 

86,569.  They had begun to procure corpses from the city’s hospitals for ‘private research’.  The pioneer of this controversial method was the city’s most talked about personality – Leonardo da Vinci.  (Renaissance & Italy & Art & Artists: Da Vinci)  ibid.

 

86,570.  Machiavelli was a single minded patriot determined to defend the city from Medici dictatorship.  (Renaissance & Italy)  ibid.

 

86,571.  From now on Cardinal Giovanni de Medici would be known as ... Pope Leo X ... Within just one year of his extravagant life-style he had emptied the papal coffers.  Soon Leo X owed money to every bank in Rome.  Behind the scenes Julio was pawning the papal jewels.  So Leo turned to the source of income only available to the Pope himself – the sale of forgiveness.  (Renaissance & Italy & Pope)  ibid.

 

86,572.  Luther’s ninety-five thesis was an indictment on the sale of salvation.  And a direct attack on the pope.  (Renaissance & Italy & Pope)  ibid.

 

86,573.  The Bull of Excommunication condemned Luther to Hell.  (Renaissance & Italy & Pope)  ibid.

 

86,574.  Within two years Giulio de Medici was crowned Pope Clement VII.  (Renaissance & Italy & Pope)  ibid.

 

86,575.  Enemies of the Medici in Florence were already running riot.  The rioters struck without discrimination.  (Renaissance & Italy)  ibid.

 

86,576.  The corrupt, disastrous reign of the Medici Popes was over.  (Renaissance & Italy & Pope)  ibid.

 

86,577.  Future generations would take the Renaissance beyond the realm of art and sculpture and change man’s understanding of the universe for ever.  (Renaissance & Italy)  ibid.

 

 

86,578.  His name was Galileo Galilei and he would come face to face with the most terrifying weapon of the age – the Roman Inquisition.  (Renaissance & Inquisition & Italy)  Empires Special: Medici: Godfathers of the Renaissance IV: Power v Truth

 

86,579.  Cosimo de Medici was only seventeen ... He received his summons to Florence.  (Renaissance & Italy)  ibid.

 

86,580.  After years of chaos the city of Florence was in decline.  (Renaissance & Italy)  ibid.

 

86,581.  Cosimo was elected the new Duke of Florence.  (Renaissance & Italy)  ibid.

 

86,582.  Michelangelo’s fresco was declared indecent.  (Renaissance & Italy & Art & Artists: Michelangelo)  ibid.

 

86,583.  Galileo had written the first book of popular science. ... He was the last in a galaxy of Medici stars.  (Renaissance & Italy)  ibid.

 

86,584.  They had been the patrons of genius.  Renaissance men who had changed the Western world.  In their name daring new artists had created the greatest works of the Italian Renaissance.  (Renaissance & Italy & Art)  ibid.  

 

 

10,028.  Italian police estimate that half a million works of art have been stolen in Italy over the last four decades.  (Art & Theft & Italy)  Alastair Sooke, The Worlds' Most Expensive Paintings, BBC 2013

 

 

10,523.  1819 was Turner’s year.  He finally made his much-postponed journey to Italy.  And the pictures he makes on this trip are the foundation of his reputation.  (Art & Italy)  This Green and Pleasant Land: The Story of British Landscape Painting

 

 

77,532.  Mussolini and his fascist movement will bring about Italy’s darkest hour.  Mussolini will eventually betray his country.  (Italy & Assassinations: Mussolini & Fascism & Right Wing)  Mussolini: The Rise of Italian Fascism

 

77,533.  At school he was a violent bully.  He was even expelled for stabbing a fellow pupil.  He became a schoolteacher, but despite his tough reputation he was sacked for failing to control his class.  He volunteered when Italy joined the war in 1915.  He fought at the front but was seriously wounded in a training exercise.  (Italy & Assassinations: Mussolini & Fascism & Right Wing)  ibid.

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