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77,072. When has it ever happened, either in ancient or modern times, that such amazing exploits have been achieved? Over so many climes, across so many seas, over such distances by land, to subdue the unseen and unknown? Whose deeds can be compared with those of Spain? Not even the ancient Greeks and Romans. (Inca & Spain & Empire) Francisco Xeres, report on discovery of Peru
77,073. When I set out to write for the people of today and of the future, about the conquest and discovery that our Spaniards made here in Peru, I could not but reflect that I was dealing with the greatest matters one could possibly write about in all of creation as far as secular history goes. Where have men ever seen the things they have seen here? And to think that God should have permitted something so great to remain hidden from the world for so long in history, unknown to men, and then let it be found, discovered and won all in our own time! (Inca & Peru & Spain & Empire) Pedro Cieza de Leon, Chronicles of Peru
77,065. Your emperor may be a great prince; I do not doubt it, seeing that he has sent his subjects so far across the waters; and I am willing to treat him as a brother. As for your pope of whom you speak, he must be mad to speak of giving away countries that do not belong to him. As for my faith, I will not change it. Your own God, as you tell me, was put to death by the very men He created. But my God still looks down on His children. (Inca & God & Spain) Atahualpa, Inca Chief, on hearing Pope Alexander VI declaring Peru a possession of Spain
77,071. I wish your Your Majesty to understand the motive that moves me to make this statement is the peace of my conscience and because of the guilt I share. For we have destroyed by our evil behaviour such a government as was enjoyed by these natives. They were so free of crime and greed, both men and women, that they could leave gold or silver worth a hundred thousand pesos in their open house. So that when they discovered that we were thieves and men who sought to force their wives and daughters to commit sin with them, they despised us. But now things have come to such a pass in offence of God, owing to the bad example we have set them in all things, that these natives from doing no evil have turned into people who can do no good. I beg God to pardon me, for I am moved to say this, seeing that I am the last to die of the Conquistadors. (Inca & Empire & Spain) Mansio Serra Leguizamon
77,075. The divine master of 12,000,000 subjects was confined ... His ransom: this room filled with gold to a height he could reach and two other rooms with silver. In today’s money it would amount to more than $250,000,000. (Inca & Spain & Empire) Christy Kenneally, The Lost Gods
77,076. The Inca genius for stone is everywhere, from the steep staircase to the terraced fields ... The cut stone blocks are set without mortar; they are an architectural wonder only matched by the engineering ability that brought them from a quarry eight kilometres away on the other side of the river. (Inca & Spain & Empire) ibid.
77,077. By 1570 the Spaniards had stripped the Inca of language, land and worship of their gods, everything that made them unique. (Inca & Spain & Empire) ibid.
78,273. Things could have been very different: in the summer of 1588 Elizabeth and the people of England faced an overwhelming threat. The country was on the verge of invasion. (England & Navy & Spain) Dan Snow, Armada: 12 Days to Save England, BBC 2015
78,274. Drake was England’s most brazen pirate. (England & Navy & Pirate & Spain) ibid.
78,601. Summer 1588 England was under attack from the most powerful naval force on Earth. (England & Navy & Spain) Dan Snow, Armada: 12 Days to Save England II
78,602. 125 ships carrying 23,000 men. More than just an invasion this was a religious crusade sent to crush a heretic nation. (England & Navy & Spain) ibid.
78,704. Summer 1588: Philip II, Catholic King of Spain, was on the verge of shaping Europe. The most powerful naval force on Earth, the mighty Spanish Armada, had sailed through the Channel. Its aim to crush heretic England and take the crown off Queen Elizabeth. (England & Navy & Spain) Dan Snow, Armada: 12 Days to Save England III
78,705. Philip assumed his army and his Armada could simply send notes to one another saying when and where they should meet. (England & Navy & Spain) ibid.
78,706. Monday 8th August 1588 has gone down as the down of one of the greatest naval battles in history ... It was a bloodbath. (England & Navy & Spain) ibid.
78,707. 9th August: The wind direction suddenly changed. (England & Navy & Spain) ibid.
89,242. This is a filmed essay in human geography made in Spain in 1932. Until 1922, when the first road was opened, Las Hurdes was almost unknown to the rest of the world, as well as the people of Spain. Luis Bunuel, Las Hurdes, Land Without Bread 1933
89,243. This village is located in one of the poorest valleys of the region. ibid.
89,244. The stream is used for all purposes. ibid.
89,245. When we came back to this village two days later and asked about her we were told she had died. ibid.
89,246. Snakes are common here. ibid.
89,247. Malaria caused by the Anopheles mosquito is everywhere. (Spain & Malaria) ibid.
89,248. As we go through the streets we see many ill people. ibid.
89,249. Another idiot – they are almost wild. ibid.
89,250. The only luxurious thing that we saw in Las Hurdes were the churches. ibid.
94,966. Fascists, Communists, and liberal democracies were united in opposition to the libertarian revolution that swept over much of the country, turning to the conflict over the spoils only when popular forces were safely suppressed. (Spain & Suppression & Civil War Spain) Noam Chomsky, Deterring Democracy
89,251. Men and women of every country who love freedom and progress, we appeal to you for the final time. If our appeal remains a voice crying out in the wilderness, our protests are ignored, our humane conduct, if all these are taken for signs of weakness, then the enemy will have only himself to blame – for we shall give vent to our wrath and destroy him in his lair. (Spain & Solidarity & Civil War Spain) Dolores Ibarruri
89,252. Workers! Farmers! Antifascists! Patriotic Spaniards! Everyone rise to defend the Republic against the Fascist military uprising, to defend the common freedoms and the democratic triumphs of the people!
The country realizes the gravity of the current situation through the bulletins being issued by the government and the Popular Front. In Morocco and in the Canary Islands the workers are fighting beside the Armed Forces loyal to the Republic against the military rebels and Fascists.
To the cry of ‘Fascism shall not pass! The executioners of October shall not pass!’ the workers and farmers of the various provinces of Spain are joining the fight against the enemies of the Republic declared in armed rebellion. Communists, Socialists, Anarchists, Republican democrats, the soldiers and services loyal to the Republic have inflicted the first defeats on the insurgents, who drag through the quagmire of Treason the military honour they have boasted about so much.
The whole country roils with fury at those savages who want to plunge democratic and the people's Spain into a hell of terror and death.
But they shall not pass! (Spain & Solidarity & Civil War Spain) Dolores Ibarruri