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★ Middle Ages

Middle Ages & Medieval: see Renaissance & Enlightenment & England & Crusades & Christianity & Catholicism & Islam & Religion & Jerusalem & Reformation

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60,586.  In July 1192 Richard the Lionheart, king of England, valiant crusader knight, stood with his Holy Warriors preparing for a strike on Jerusalem.  (Crusade & Islam & Jerusalem & Middle Ages & England & Richard I & Muslim) Thomas Asbridge, The Crusades: The Clash of Titans 2/3 BBC 2012

 

60,587.  Jihad literally means struggle, but in the Middle Ages this could represent a fight against internal impurity or a sacred physical struggle – a Holy War, and its message could be spread by poetry.  (Crusade & Islam & Jerusalem & Middle Ages & England & Richard I & Muslim)  ibid.

 

60,588.  Saladin was quickly becoming the premier Muslim leader in the East ... He united the disparate Muslim factions into a coherent army.  (Crusade & Islam & Jerusalem & Middle Ages & England & Richard I & Muslim)  ibid.

 

60,589.  The Christian army marching in the height of summer was being led into a waterless killing zone.  (Crusade & Islam & Jerusalem & Middle Ages & England & Richard I & Muslim)  ibid.

 

60,590.  Jerusalem was back in Muslim hands.  (Crusade & Islam & Jerusalem & Middle Ages & England & Richard I)  ibid.

 

60,591.  In June 1191 Richard the Lionheart sailed down the coast of Palestine.  (Crusade & Islam & Jerusalem & Middle Ages & England & Richard I)  ibid.

 

60,592.  The Third Crusade had achieved a categorical victory.  (Crusade & Islam & Jerusalem & Middle Ages & England & Richard I)  ibid.

 

60,593.  During Richard’s long absence from home his brother John had been plotting to take control of England.  (Crusade & Islam & Jerusalem & Middle Ages & England & Richard I)  ibid.

 

60,594.  Against his better judgment the Lionheart began a second advance having effectively lost control of his Crusade.  (Crusade & Islam & Jerusalem & Middle Ages & England & Richard I)  ibid.

 

60,595.  The Lionheart failed to learn the third Crusade to victory.  (Crusade & Islam & Jerusalem & Middle Ages & England & Richard I)  ibid.

 

 

60,596.  Two centuries of religious war.  (Crusade & Islam & Jerusalem & Middle Ages & England & Richard I & Christianity)   Dr Thomas Asbridge, The Crusades: Victory & Defeat

 

60,597.  These Christian outposts were ruled by bickering warlords.  (Crusade & Islam & Jerusalem & Middle Ages & England & Richard I & Christianity)  ibid.

 

60,598.  The power and wealth of the Hospitallers.  This is a monument to rival anything in the Middle Ages ... Like their Templar brethren, they embraced the Crusading ideal.  (Crusade & Islam & Jerusalem & Middle Ages & England & Richard I & Christianity)  ibid.

 

60,599.  Commercial contacts between East and West blossomed.  (Crusade & Islam & Jerusalem & Middle Ages & England & Richard I & Christianity)  ibid.

 

60,600.  Louis was determined to bring Jerusalem back into the Christian fold.  (Crusade & Islam & Jerusalem & Middle Ages & England & Richard I & Christianity)  ibid.

 

60,601.  Louis IX was the perfect Crusader king.  (Crusade & Islam & Jerusalem & Middle Ages & England & Richard I & Christianity)  ibid.

 

60,602.  The Mongols and the Mamluks are the big players.  (Crusade & Islam & Jerusalem & Middle Ages & England & Richard I & Christianity)  ibid.

 

 

60,627.  The Order had been quietly formed in Jerusalem in 1119, twenty years after the Christians took the City.  A French knight founded the Order to protect pilgrims in the Holy Land.  So how did they end up with fortresses and churches all over Europe with a massive power-base to rival the European monarchs?  (Knights Templar & Jerusalem & Middle Ages & Pope & France)  Trial of the Knights Templar

 

60,628.  There were originally only nine Templars.  (Knights Templar & Jerusalem & Middle Ages & Pope & France)  ibid.

 

60,629.  The Chinon Parchment adds up to a litany of heresies: the Templars had admitted to homosexuality, denouncing Christ and defiling the Cross.  The Templar’s first confession after arrest had been tortured out of them by Philip IV, but had the Pope’s men done the same?  Were the Chinon confessions reliable?  The Chinon Parchment contains one further revelation: despite people believing for centuries that the Pope had condemned the Templars, in fact he had saved them.  He absolved [Jacques] de Molay and the leaders unconditionally.  (Knights Templar & Jerusalem & Middle Ages & Pope & France)  ibid.

 

60,630.  But the old warrior had left behind one last Parisian mystery.  As the Templars were swept away, their biggest Bank, the Paris Temple, was raided by the King’s men.  It was empty.  Templar assets in Normandy alone amounted to more than the wealth of England yet nothing was found.  Philip IV’s destruction of the Knights Templar had all been for nothing.  (Knights Templar & Jerusalem & Middle Ages & Pope & France)  ibid.

 

60,631.  The Knights Templar were the most powerful military religious order of the Middle Ages.  Formed to protect pilgrims in the Holy Land, they participated in the Crusades and rapidly gained wealth, lands and influence and were answerable to none save the Pope himself.  In addition to having a fearful military reputation, they were also Christendom’s first bankers, and invented the modern banking system that is still in use today.  (Knights Templar & Jerusalem & Middle Ages & Pope & France & Bankster)  ibid.

 

 

10,145.  Seventeenth-century England was still stuck in the Middle Ages.  (Art & Middle Ages)  Waldemar Januszczak, Baroque! From St Peter’s to St Paul's III, BBC 2013

 

 

10,181.  From the ghouls and demons of the German Middle Ages to some of the most beautiful sculptures ever created.  (Art & Middle Ages)  Andrew Graham-Dixon, The Art of Germany: A Divided Land, BBC 2010

 

 

30,385.  The Middle Ages: a time of faith and a time of fear.  In Hereford monks created a work of art designed to make sense of the unknown.  This is Mapa Mundi: a map of the world as it was known around 1300.  (Great Britain & England & Map & Middle Ages)  David Dimbleby, Seven Ages of Britain 2/7: Age of Worship 1170 to 1400

 

30,387.  As the Middle Ages unfolded a new way of seeing the world emerged that would unite church and crown.  It was inspired by heroic tales and ancient legends.  They called it Chivalry.  (Great Britain & England & Middle Ages)  ibid.

 

30,389.  King Richard II wanted the crown itself to be an object of worship.  His vanity and ambition created an era of magnificence.  The artistic pinnacle of the Middle Ages.  (Great Britain & England & Richard II & Middle Ages)  ibid.

 

 

30,516.  Throughout the Middle Ages people believed things that today strike us as paradoxical.  (England & Middle Ages)  Dr Robert Bartlett, Inside the Medieval Mind I: Knowledge

 

 

51,217.  In the late middles ages the Catholic Church thought of a diabolical way to bring in more cash ... These sin credits were a big money maker ... (Climate Science & Catholicism & Sin & Middle Ages)  Penn & Teller, Bullshit! Being Green s6e6

 

 

57,709.  The deadliest plague of all occurred during the Middle Ages – the Black Death.  The Bubonic Plague devastated Europe in the 1340s killing between 25 and 50,000,000 people ... By the year 1400 it’s thought the death toll may have reached 100,000,000 people worldwide, reducing the population of Europe by as much as 50% ... The Spanish Flu was more deadly than the Great War.  (Plagues & Middle Ages)  Seven Signs of the Apocalypse    

 

 

111,738.  Out of the darkness of chaos and violence of the Middle Ages one family rose to seize control of England.  Generation after generation they ruled the country for more than 300 years, ruthlessly crushing all competition to become the greatest English dynasty of all time: the Plantagenets.  (Henry II & England & Middle Ages)  Dan Jones, Britain’s Bloodiest Dynasty s1e1: Revenge, Channel 5 2014

 

111,739.  These kinds murdered, betrayed and tyranised their way to spectacular success.  (Henry II & England & Middle Ages)  ibid.  

 

111,740.  Matilda’s son, Henry Plantagenet, has watched from France as his birthright is ripped away.  In 1153 Henry Plantagenet sails to England with an invasion force aiming to seize back the throne.  (Henry II & England & Middle Ages)  ibid. 

 

111,741.  The whole of Europe blames him for the murder of the Archbishop of Canterbury.  And his obsession with control has alienated his entire family.  (Henry II & England & Middle Ages)  ibid. 

 

111,742.  He’s good at betrayal but he lacks his father’s political savvy.  (Henry II & England & Middle Ages)  ibid. 

 

111,743.  England is turning into a disaster zone.  (Henry II & England & Middle Ages)  ibid. 

        

 

75,738.  The Plantagenets forged England as a nation.  (Henry III & England & Middle Ages)  Dan Jones, Britains Bloodiest Dynasty s1e2: Hatred

 

75,739.  1230: Henry III came to the throne at the age of nine.  He has been king for fourteen years.  His powers are limited by a document signed by his father King John.  It’s called the Magna Carta.  (Henry III & England & Middle Ages)  ibid.  caption

 

75,740.  Henry III is the fourth Plantagenet king.  (Henry III & England & Middle Ages)  ibid.

 

75,741.  He is a total dreamer.  (Henry III & England & Middle Ages)  ibid.

 

75,742.  Simon [de Montfort] marries Henry sister Eleanor, the greatest catch in the kingdom.  (Henry III & England & Middle Ages)  ibid.

 

75,743.  The basis of our modern parliamentary democracy.  (Henry III & England & Middle Ages)  ibid.

 

75,744.  In 1264 England is plunged into a civil war.  (Henry III & England & Civil War & Middle Ages)  ibid.

 

75,745.  Edward promises them to keep the reforms ... The Plantagenet army is back on the march.  (Henry III & England & Middle Ages)  ibid.

 

 

71,056.  Most famous for the story of his agonising death, but the story of his life is even more extraordinary – one of obsession, blood lust, political savagery and above all revenge.  (Edward II & England & Middle Ages)  Dan Jones, Britain's Bloodiest Dynasty s1e3: Revenge, Channel 5 2014

 

71,057.  Edward has promoted his best friend to Earl of Cornwall and made him his most trusted adviser.  (Edward II & England & Middle Ages)  ibid.

 

71,058.  The finances, security and political security have all gone to the dogs.  (Edward II & England & Middle Ages)  ibid.

 

71,059.  1321: 13 years into Edward II’s reign, [Piers] Gaveston’s murder by Lancaster remains unavenged.  (Edward II & England & Middle Ages)  ibid.

 

71,060.  1326: 19 years into Edward II’s reign, his support for the Despensers has made him hated throughout England.  (Edward II & England & Middle Ages)  ibid.

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